Pharmaceutical Solutions

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51 Questions

What is the main advantage of pharmaceutical solutions in terms of dosing?

Immediate availability for absorption and distribution

Which type of solvent is commonly used for non-sterile products?

Purified water

What makes pharmaceutical solutions not ideal for drugs with unpleasant taste?

Inability to mask unpleasant taste

Why is ethyl acetate unsuitable as a solvent for pharmaceutical preparations?

It is not Generally Recognized as Safe (GRASS)

What risk is associated with adding many different excipients to a product?

Increased potential for incompatibilities

What advantage do pharmaceutical solutions offer in terms of administration to patients who have difficulty swallowing?

Already in solution for easy ingestion

In pharmaceutical applications, these are the role of purified water except?

Alternative to non-volatile oils

Which characteristic makes pharmaceutical solutions preferable for indicating the amount of medicine consumed to patients?

Clear labeling on packaging

Which of the following is NOT a type of non-aqueous solvent mentioned in the text?

Sterile water for injection

What effect does the formation of a complex have on the solubility of a product?

Increases solubility

Why is it important to adjust the amount of sucrose in a medicated syrup?

To prevent capping, which leads to recrystallization.

Why do syrups need a high concentration of sucrose to be self-preserved?

To prevent the need for adding preservatives.

What is the main risk associated with the dilution of a syrup formulation?

Decrease in the concentration of sucrose.

What might happen if a syrup formulation is not adequately preserved?

Increased risk of microbial growth.

Why is it necessary to consider other components in a syrup formulation when determining the final concentration of sucrose?

To ensure proper consistency and stability.

What effect does recrystallization have on the quality of a syrup formulation?

Degrades the overall quality and appearance.

What is the role of talc as a dispersing aid in pharmaceutical applications?

Absorbing excess oil essence

Why is it important for talc to be asbestos free in pharmaceutical applications?

To avoid contamination of the product

What distinguishes aromatic waters like peppermint water and rose water in pharmaceutical use?

They serve multiple functions like flavoring and perfuming

What is the main difference between talc acting as a dispersing agent and as a clarifying agent?

Dispersing agent absorbs oil essence, while clarifying agent filters the solution

What characterizes elixirs in terms of their composition for oral use?

Pleasantly flavored with a syrup base and alcohol

What is the main difference between spirits and tinctures?

Spirits contain only volatile substances, while tinctures may contain non-volatile substances.

How are aromatic waters prepared?

By distillation or solution of the aromatic substance.

What is the distinguishing feature between spirits and aromatic waters?

Spirits have a very distinct aroma due to the volatile substances present.

Which statement accurately describes the composition of tinctures?

Tinctures are less concentrated than spirits but may or may not contain volatile substances.

What distinguishes tinctures from aromatic waters?

Tinctures can contain non-volatile substances, while aromatic waters cannot.

In what aspect are spirits and tinctures similar?

Both can be prepared as hydroalcoholic solutions.

What is the distinguishing feature of otic solutions, based on the text?

The packaging includes a small orifice for easy dropwise administration

Why are nasal solutions required to be isotonic, according to the text?

To prevent cilia irritation in the nasal passages

What is a common vehicle used in oral solutions, as mentioned in the text?

Polyols

Which type of solution is suitable for topical application to the skin or mucous membranes?

Topical solution

What role do tonicity adjusters like NaCl and Dextrose play in nasal solutions?

Ensure isotonicity with body fluids

How do nasal solutions differ from oral solutions in terms of administration?

Nasal solutions are administered through instillation or spraying into the nose

Why must irrigating solutions be sterile even though they are not used parenterally?

To reduce the risk of sepsis

What distinguishes parenteral solutions from other types of solutions mentioned in the text?

They can be injected directly into the blood vessel.

Why are ophthalmic solutions required to be sterile and particle-free?

To prevent sepsis from eye infections.

What is the main reason nebulizers are used for inhalation solutions?

To transform the solution into small droplets for lung penetration.

Why are nebulized drugs intended to pass through the bronchioles and alveoli of the lungs?

To target specific areas in the lungs for systemic effects.

What distinguishes parenteral injections into muscles (intramuscular) from injections into veins (intravenous)?

Different speed of absorption

What is the main difference between an evacuation enema and a retention enema?

The intended effects on the body

Why is it important for enema solutions to be refrigerated once dissolved?

To reduce microbial attack

What is the function of a vaginal douche?

Cleansing or antiseptic agent

Why are nasal douches required to be isotonic?

To prevent damage to nasal tissues

What is the main purpose of using an eye douche?

Cleansing the eye

What distinguishes gargles from mouthwashes?

The method of application

Why are liniments non-aqueous?

To ensure they stay on the skin for a longer period of time

What is the main purpose of a counterirritant in liniments?

To provide a different sensation than pain

Why should collodions be preserved in a tight container?

To prevent them from evaporating

What makes flexible collodion different from other collodions?

It contains camphor and castor oil

Why is salicylic acid added to collodions?

For its keratolytic effect

What is the benefit of using collodion as a waterproof covering for stitched incisions?

It prevents infection and promotes healing

Explore the concept of pharmaceutical solutions, which are homogeneous mixtures prepared by dissolving substances in a liquid solvent. Learn about the advantages of liquid pharmaceutical preparations and the importance of ensuring complete dissolution of solutes.

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