Urinary Physiology 1: Overview of Renal Physiology Quiz

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40 Questions

What is the distinguishing feature that allows birds and mammals to produce hypertonic urine?

Loop of Henle

Which part of the nephron contains the Juxta-glomerular apparatus?

Bowman’s capsule

What is the role of the Loop of Henle in the nephron?

Regulation of osmolarity

Which segment of the nephron is responsible for reabsorption of water and ions?

Proximal convoluted tubule

What is the approximate percentage of nephrons that are classified as juxtamedullary nephrons?

20%

Which hormone is primarily responsible for regulating water reabsorption in the kidney?

Antidiuretic hormone (ADH)

What is the first stage of urine formation?

Glomerular filtration

Which factors dictate the rate of filtration in the kidneys?

Starling’s forces

What may lead to acute renal failure?

Severe reduction in arterial blood pressure

What is the individual functioning unit of the kidneys?

Nephron

Which region of the kidney carries out numerous vital functions?

Nephron

What regulates renal blood flow according to intrinsic mechanisms?

Tubulo-glomerular feedback

Which of the following is NOT a function of the kidney?

Regulation of blood sugar levels

What is the main site of glomerular filtration in the kidney?

Cortex

Which hormone plays a key role in regulating blood pressure and volume by acting on the kidneys?

Aldosterone

What is the primary function of the nephron in the kidney?

Urine concentration

What is the structure responsible for preventing large molecules from entering the renal tubule during glomerular filtration?

Podocytes

Which of the following best describes autoregulation of renal blood flow?

Maintained by intrinsic mechanisms within the kidney

What is the formula for calculating Net Filtration Pressure (NFP) in the context of glomerular filtration?

NFP = Pcap - (cap + Pbc)

Which condition leads to a decrease in filtration due to the blockage in the ureter?

Kidney stones

What effect does low protein levels have on glomerular filtration?

Increases filtration rate

Which arteriole constriction results in reduced filtration due to decreased hydrostatic pressure and blood flow in the glomerular capillaries?

Constriction of efferent arteriole

What range of arterial blood pressure allows for autoregulation of renal blood flow?

80-180mmHg

Which mechanism involves intrinsic factors in the kidney and is responsible for autoregulation of renal blood flow?

Myogenic mechanism

Which part of the nephron is responsible for the fine-tuning of electrolyte concentrations?

Distal tubule

What is the main function of the juxta-glomerular apparatus in the nephron?

Production of hormone renin

During glomerular filtration, what is the structure that forms a barrier to the filtration of large molecules?

Glomerular basement membrane

Which component of the nephron is responsible for the first stage of urine formation?

Loop of Henlé

What does the ultra filtrate in a nephron contain, based on micropuncture studies?

Ions and small molecules in the same concentration as plasma

Which part of the nephron plays a role in controlling urine concentration, especially in medullary nephrons?

Loop of Henlé

What is the role of the negatively charged molecules lining the slit pores between pedicels?

Repel negatively charged molecules for filtration

Which component is NOT found in the ultrafiltrate produced in the glomerulus?

Proteins like albumin

In a 70kg person, approximately how many liters of fluid are filtered by the glomeruli per day?

180 liters

What happens to 99% of the urine that is produced daily?

It is reabsorbed

Which condition can lead to impairment of the Glomerular Filtration Rate (GFR)?

Parasitic infection

What role does the GFR play in normal kidney function?

To filter waste from the blood

Which of the following forces determine GFR?

Hydrostatic pressure and oncotic pressure

In a 20 kg dog, what is the ratio of plasma volume to urine output?

3.2:1

What happens to a significant amount of fluid that is filtered by the glomeruli?

Reabsorbed into circulation

Which factor can lead to an increase in Glomerular Filtration Rate (GFR)?

Dehydration

Test your knowledge on renal physiology, including key concepts such as fluid distribution, water balance, kidney functions, and nephron features. Learn about glomerular filtration and the structure of the filtration system.

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