quiz image

Veterinary Medicine Acronyms and Terms

WellBacklitAppleTree avatar
WellBacklitAppleTree
·
·
Download

Start Quiz

Study Flashcards

72 Questions

Which type of signaling involves receptors on the same type of cell that secretes the signaling molecules?

Autocrine signaling

What is the primary function of the endocrine system in cell signaling?

To secrete hormones into the bloodstream

What is the location of receptors in intracrine signaling?

On the nuclear envelope

Which hormone is an example of paracrine signaling?

Fibroblast growth factor

What is the term for the process by which hormones are released into the bloodstream?

Secretion

Which of the following is an example of a hormone regulated by negative feedback?

Thyroid-stimulating hormone

What is the primary function of the pituitary gland in endocrine signaling?

To regulate the release of hormones from other endocrine glands

Which type of signaling involves receptors on a different type of target cell located distant from the cells secreting the signaling molecules?

Endocrine signaling

What is the purpose of releasing hormones in the hypothalamic-pituitary-target gland axis?

To stimulate the production and release of trophic hormones

What is the function of the median eminence in the hypothalamic-pituitary-target gland axis?

To release releasing hormones into the hypothalamo-hypophyseal portal system

What is the effect of trophic hormones on target endocrine glands?

Stimulation of hormone production

What is the function of the pars distalis in the pituitary gland?

To release trophic hormones in response to releasing hormones

What is the purpose of negative feedback in the hypothalamic-pituitary-target gland axis?

To inhibit hormone production

What is the relationship between the hypothalamus and the pituitary gland?

The hypothalamus regulates the pituitary gland through releasing hormones

What is the function of inhibitory factors in the hypothalamic-pituitary-target gland axis?

To inhibit hormone production

What is the characteristic of the median eminence and pituitary gland?

They are separated by a blood-brain barrier

What is the effect of lengthening of the photoperiod on melatonin secretion?

Suppresses melatonin secretion

Which part of the pituitary gland is affected by melatonin binding to receptors?

Pars tuberalis

What is the primary function of glomus cells in chemoreceptor organs?

To relay response to hypoxia to the nervous system

What is the term for a type of neuroendocrine neoplasia that can occur in the aortic body?

Chemodectoma

What is the most common type of injury that affects endocrine organs?

Disturbances of growth

What is the result of disturbances of growth in an endocrine organ?

Altered function in the endocrine organ and its target organs

What is an example of a clinical presentation that can reflect hypothyroidism?

Cutaneous lesions

What is the term for a condition that can manifest as seizures due to hyperinsulinemia?

Hyperinsulinemia

What is the result of long-term administration of glucocorticoids on the adrenal cortex?

Trophic atrophy of the adrenal cortex

What is the effect of negative feedback on the hypothalamus and adenohypophyseal thyrotrophs?

Decreased secretion of thyroid-stimulating hormone

What is the characteristic of an iatrogenic hyperadrenocorticism?

Trophic atrophy of the adrenal cortex

What is the effect of long-term administration of exogenous thyroid hormones on the thyroid gland?

Atrophy of the thyroid gland

What is the consequence of disrupting the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical axis?

Hyperfunction of the adrenal cortex

What is the result of negative feedback through an intact hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical axis?

Atrophy of the adrenal cortex

What is the characteristic of a corticotroph adenoma in the adenohypophysis?

Absence of acidophils

What is the effect of iatrogenic glucocorticoid excess on the adrenal medulla?

Relative increase in the cross-sectional area of the adrenal medulla

What is the typical outcome of primary hyperfunction in an endocrine gland?

Excess hormone production

What is the underlying cause of secondary hyperfunction in an endocrine gland?

A trophic hormone from outside the gland

What can non-functional endocrine neoplasms lead to?

Destruction of surrounding glandular tissue

What is the result of a functional neoplasm of adenohypophyseal corticotrophs?

Diffuse adrenocortical hyperplasia

What is a possible outcome of chronic and severe endocrine gland hyperplasia?

Irreversibility of hyperplasia

What is the typical effect of trophic hormones on target endocrine glands?

Stimulation of hormone production

What can occur in endocrine glands due to primary neoplasia?

Hyperfunction

What can cause atrophy with secondary hypofunction in target tissues?

Pituitary neoplasm or residual adenohypophyseal cells

What is the primary difference between the effects of smaller adenohypophyseal lesions and large macroadenomas?

Smaller lesions are functional, producing and releasing trophic hormones, while large macroadenomas may exert their effect through destruction of adjacent pituitary parenchyma

What is the significance of determining the type of trophic hormone produced by the proliferating cells in nonphysiologic pituitary proliferations?

It is useful for classifying the type of hyperplastic nodule or neoplasm

What is the typical characteristic of corticotroph hyperplasia in the pituitary gland?

It consists of corticotrophs with basophilic granular cytoplasm that are hypertrophied

What is the primary goal of biochemical analysis of serum, clinical signs, and/or immunohistochemistry in veterinary medicine?

To determine the type of trophic hormone produced by the proliferating cells

What is the potential consequence of multiple nodules coalescing to form an adenoma?

It can result in the production of excessive trophic hormones

What is the significance of the size of adenohypophyseal lesions in determining their functionality?

Smaller lesions are likely to be functional, while larger lesions may exert their effect through destruction of adjacent pituitary parenchyma

What is the term for the process of examining the endocrine system after death?

Necropsy

What is the potential consequence of large macroadenomas on the surrounding tissue?

They can compress the brain and optic chiasm

What is a characteristic of corticotroph adenomas?

They are composed of basophilic cells.

Which type of adenoma is reported mainly in sheep?

Lactotroph adenoma

What is a characteristic of large macroadenomas?

They have a compressive mass effect.

What is a characteristic of thyrotroph adenomas?

They are rare in all species.

What is a characteristic of melanotrophs?

They are the predominant cell type in the pars intermedia.

What is a characteristic of corticotroph adenomas in dogs?

They are an important cause of hypercortisolism.

What percentage of the adrenal cortex needs to be destroyed for primary hypoadrenocorticism (Addison's disease) to occur?

90%

What is a characteristic of somatotroph adenomas?

They are one of the more common pars distalis neoplasms.

What is the most common type of proliferative lesion in ferrets?

Hyperplasia

What is the primary difference between neoplastic cells in the sinusoidal and diffuse patterns?

Arrangement of cells in sheets or packets

What is the histologic lesion of autoimmune hypoadrenocorticism?

Lymphoplasmacytic adrenalitis

What is a characteristic of gonadotroph adenomas?

They are one of the more common pars distalis neoplasms.

What is the most common type of pituitary adenoma in cats?

Somatotroph Adenoma

What percentage of proliferations in ferrets are classified as adrenocortical adenomas?

10%

What is the result of hypersecretion of GH in somatotroph adenomas?

Acromegaly

What is the term for the process by which the adrenal cortex is destroyed in primary hypoadrenocorticism?

Autoimmune destruction

What is the characteristic of neoplastic somatotrophs in some somatotroph adenomas?

Large with sparse secretory granules

What is the characteristic of adrenocortical carcinoma in dogs?

All of the above

What is the diagnostic tool used to diagnose somatotroph adenomas?

Serum assay for IGF-1 concentration

What is the consequence of primary hypoadrenocorticism?

Hypofunction of the adrenal cortex

What is the reason gonadotroph adenomas may be underdiagnosed?

Immunohistochemistry to detect FSH or LH is not routine

What is the effect of somatotroph adenomas on surrounding tissue?

Compression of normal tissues

What is the term for the process of trophic atrophy in the adrenal cortex?

Trophic atrophy

What is the characteristic of neoplastic cells in somatotroph adenomas?

Large with a large hypochromatic nucleus and one or two distinct nucleoli

Study Notes

Endocrine System

  • The endocrine system consists of glands that produce and secrete hormones that regulate various bodily functions.

Hormones and Cell Signaling

  • Hormones are chemical messengers that transmit signals from one cell to another.
  • Endocrine signaling involves the release of hormones into the bloodstream, which then bind to receptors on target cells.
  • Autocrine signaling involves the release of hormones that act on the same cell that produced them.
  • Paracrine signaling involves the release of hormones that act on nearby cells.
  • Intracrine signaling involves the release of hormones that act within the cell that produced them.

Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Target Gland Axis

  • The hypothalamic-pituitary-target gland axis is a complex system that regulates various endocrine functions.
  • The hypothalamus produces releasing hormones that stimulate the pituitary gland to produce trophic hormones.
  • Trophic hormones stimulate the production of hormones by target glands such as the thyroid, adrenal, and gonads.

Pathology of Endocrine Glands

  • Endocrine glands are susceptible to various types of injury, including degeneration, necrosis, inflammation, and neoplasia.
  • Growth disturbances in endocrine glands can lead to hyperfunction or hypofunction of the gland.
  • Endocrine neoplasms can be functional (producing excess hormones) or non-functional (not producing hormones).

Iatrogenic Syndromes of Hormone Excess

  • The administration of exogenous hormones can lead to hormone excess and various clinical syndromes.
  • Examples include iatrogenic Cushing's syndrome and iatrogenic hyperthyroidism.

Hyperfunction of an Endocrine Gland

  • Primary hyperfunction of an endocrine gland is caused by a functional neoplasm that autonomously produces excess hormones.
  • Secondary hyperfunction of an endocrine gland is caused by excessive stimulation by trophic hormones.

Hypofunction of an Endocrine Gland

  • Hypofunction of an endocrine gland can be caused by various factors, including atrophy, inflammation, or neoplasia.

Pituitary Gland

  • The pituitary gland is a vital component of the endocrine system that regulates various endocrine functions.
  • Pituitary adenomas can cause hyperfunction of the gland, leading to various clinical syndromes.

Adrenal Glands

  • The adrenal glands produce various hormones, including glucocorticoids, mineralocorticoids, and androgens.
  • Adrenal gland neoplasms can cause hyperfunction or hypofunction of the gland.

Chemoreceptor Organs

  • Chemoreceptor organs, such as the carotid bodies and aortic body, detect changes in oxygen and carbon dioxide levels and regulate breathing.

Mechanisms of Endocrine Diseases

  • Endocrine diseases can be caused by various mechanisms, including growth disturbances, inflammation, and neoplasia.
  • Endocrine diseases can have a significant impact on the quality of life and overall health of animals.

This quiz covers various terms and acronyms related to veterinary medicine, including molecular biology, hormones, and medical conditions. Test your knowledge of the abbreviations and their meanings.

Make Your Own Quizzes and Flashcards

Convert your notes into interactive study material.

Get started for free

More Quizzes Like This

Veterinary Medicine Quiz
5 questions
Veterinary Medicine: Canine Diseases
18 questions
Veterinary Medicine: Pig Diseases
16 questions
Use Quizgecko on...
Browser
Browser