Retinoblastoma: The pRB Story Quiz

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31 Questions

Which type of gene can be activated or gain function within a cell, leading to genomic instability and eventually cancer?

Oncogenes

What happens when tumour suppressor genes are lost or oncogenes are activated?

Uncontrolled cellular growth

What is the result of angiogenesis in a developing tumour?

Development of its own blood supply

What is metastasis in the context of cancer?

When a primary tumour enters blood vessels and spreads around the body

What contributes to genomic instability in a cell?

Activation of oncogenes or loss of function of tumour suppressor genes

What is the role of tumour suppressor genes in the development of cancer?

Their deactivation leads to genomic instability and cancer development

What is the function of the hTERT (Telomerase) gene in cancer cells?

Maintains telomeres in cells

What is a common early symptom of retinoblastoma in children?

Discolouration in one of the child’s eyes

What percentage of retinoblastoma cases are bilateral (occur in both eyes)?

40%

Which treatment type involves using a hot probe to burn the cancer cells?

Thermotherapy

In the context of tumour suppression, what did Sir Henry Harris propose was central to carcinogenesis?

Chromosome loss

What was the conclusion drawn from the fusion of highly malignant mouse cell line with a mouse cell line of lower malignancy by Barski & et al (1962)?

Malignancy must be dominant

What is the main role of the P16 gene in cancer?

Regulates Retinoblastoma

What is the primary age of diagnosis for retinoblastoma in children?

~2 years old

Which gene is responsible for regulating retinoblastoma?

$P16$ gene

What is the function of Telomerase in cancer cells?

Maintains telomeres in cells

What is the main function of the hTERT gene in cancer cells?

Maintains telomeres in cells

What did Sir Henry Harris propose was central to carcinogenesis in the context of tumour suppression?

Chromosome loss

What contributes to genomic instability in a cell according to the text?

Gain of genetic information

What is the primary age of diagnosis for retinoblastoma in children?

2 years old

What is metastasis in the context of cancer?

Spread of cancer to other parts of the body

Which treatment type involves using liquid nitrogen to freeze and kill cancer cells?

Cryotherapy

What is a common early symptom of retinoblastoma in children according to the text?

Discolouration in the eyes

What happens when tumour suppressor genes are lost or oncogenes are activated?

Genomic instability

What is the result of angiogenesis in a developing tumour?

Formation of blood vessels within a tumour

What is the relationship between oncogenes and tumour suppressor genes in terms of genomic instability?

Oncogenes can be activated, leading to genomic instability, while tumour suppressor genes can be deactivated, also leading to genomic instability

What is the process of angiogenesis in the context of cancer development?

It is the formation of a primary tumour's own blood supply

What is metastasis in the context of cancer?

It is when a primary tumour spreads to other parts of the body and forms secondary tumours

What contributes to genomic instability in a cell, leading to cancer development?

Both activation of oncogenes and deactivation of tumour suppressor genes

Which statement accurately describes the role of tumour suppressor genes in cancer development?

Deactivation of tumour suppressor genes leads to uncontrolled cellular growth, angiogenesis, and metastasis

What happens when oncogenes are activated or gain function within a cell?

It leads to genomic instability and eventually contributes to cancer development

Test your knowledge about the discovery of the tumor suppressor gene related to retinoblastoma and genomic instability. This quiz covers the lecture notes on 'The Biology and Treatment of Cancer' at Brunel University London.

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