Research Methods: Sampling and Population

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What is the term for the entire group of people, events, or things of interest that the researcher wishes to investigate?

Population

What is the purpose of defining the population in the sampling process?

To identify the elements of interest

What is the term for a single member of the population?

Element

What is the sampling frame in a university setting?

The university registry containing a listing of all students, faculty, administrators, and support staff

What is the term for a subset of the population?

Sample

What is the first step in the sampling process?

Identify the population of interest

What is the term for a single member of the sample?

Subject

What is the characteristic of unrestricted or simple random sampling?

Every element in the population has a known and equal chance of being selected

What is the purpose of generating random numbers in Excel?

To select a random sample from a population

What is the difference between probability and non-probability sampling?

In probability sampling, elements have a known, nonzero chance of being chosen, while in non-probability sampling, elements do not have a known chance of being chosen

What is the example of systematic sampling given in the text?

Sampling every 7th household from a population of 260 houses

How many types of complex probability sampling designs are mentioned in the text?

5

What is the primary purpose of convenience sampling?

To collect information from easily accessible members of the population

Which type of sampling is used when a researcher wants to collect data from a specific group of people who have the desired information?

Purposive sampling

What is the limitation of judgment sampling?

It may curtail the generalizability of the findings

What is the characteristic of judgment sampling?

It involves collecting data from a limited number of people who have the desired information

Why is purposive sampling used in research?

Because it allows researchers to collect data from a specific group of people who can provide the desired information

Which type of sampling is used when a researcher wants to collect data from a large population?

Quota sampling

What is the purpose of using area sampling design in retail stores, advertisements, and TV and radio programs?

To gather information on the interests, attitudes, predispositions, and behaviors of the local area people

What is the main difference between single-stage and multi-stage sampling?

Single-stage sampling involves randomly choosing the required number of clusters, while multi-stage sampling involves randomly selecting multiple clusters and then selecting further clusters from those

What is the primary limitation of non-probability sampling designs?

The findings cannot be confidently generalized to the population

What is the purpose of double sampling?

To collect preliminary information and then examine it in more detail

What is an example of double sampling?

Conducting a structured interview with a subgroup of respondents and then asking additional questions

What is the main advantage of using area sampling design in a study?

It provides more detailed information about the local population

What is the primary objective of quota sampling?

To ensure that certain groups are adequately represented in the study

What is quota sampling similar to?

Proportionate stratified sampling

What is the primary advantage of using simple random sampling?

It allows for the generalizability of the findings to the whole population

In quota sampling, how are the participants selected?

Selected based on convenience

What is the purpose of assigning a quota in quota sampling?

To ensure that certain groups are adequately represented in the study

In the example provided, what percentage of the sample size represents blue‐collar workers?

60%

Study Notes

Sampling Designs

  • Area sampling design: used to gather information on local populations' interests, attitudes, predispositions, and behaviors
  • Single-stage sampling: dividing the population into clusters, randomly choosing the required number of clusters, and investigating all elements in each cluster
  • Multi-stage sampling: sampling in several stages, e.g., selecting hospitals, then wards, and finally poll respondents
  • Double sampling: using a primary sample to collect preliminary information, then selecting a subsample for more detailed examination

Nonprobability Sampling

  • Nonprobability sampling designs: elements in the population do not have a known probability of being chosen as sample subjects
  • Quota sampling: ensuring certain groups are adequately represented in the study through the assignment of a quota, e.g., 60% blue-collar workers and 40% white-collar workers

Sampling Process

  • Define the population
  • Determine the sample frame (physical representation of all elements in the population)
  • Determine the sampling design (probability/nonprobability)
  • Determine the appropriate sample size
  • Execute the sampling process

Probability Sampling

  • Unrestricted (simple random sampling): every element in the population has a known and equal chance of being selected as a subject
  • Restricted (complex probability sampling): complex designs, such as systematic, stratified random, cluster, area, and double sampling
  • Systematic sampling: drawing every nth element in the population, starting with a randomly chosen element
  • Stratified random sampling: dividing the population into subgroups and sampling from each
  • Cluster sampling: dividing the population into clusters and sampling from each cluster
  • Area sampling: sampling based on geographic areas
  • Double sampling: using a primary sample to collect preliminary information, then selecting a subsample for more detailed examination

Nonprobability Sampling Designs

  • Convenience sampling: collecting information from conveniently available members of the population
  • Purposive sampling: sampling specific types of people who can provide desired information, e.g., experts or people with specific characteristics
  • Judgment sampling: selecting a sample based on the researcher's judgment, e.g., selecting patients with specific health problems for a pharmaceutical study

Test your understanding of sampling and population in research methods. Learn how to select the right representatives for the entire population and understand the importance of defining the population in research.

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