Postmature Delivery and Low Lying Placenta

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During the anabolic phase of pregnancy (week 0-20), there is a buildup of maternal capacity to deliver nutrients to the fetus, with increased levels of anabolic hormones and a decrease in exercise tolerance, leading to the buildup of fat, nutrient, and liver ______ stores.

glycogen

In the catabolic phase of pregnancy (week 20+), there is an increased level of catabolic hormones to facilitate the nutrient transfer to the fetus, leading to larger production and blood levels of glucose, triglycerides, and fatty acids, and a decrease in liver ______ storages.

glycogen

During the 1st trimester of pregnancy, there is a multiplication of embryo cells and cell differentiation, with main external features beginning to take form. This period is considered as a 'critical period' as major development defects can occur, especially within the first 100 days, due to the rapid and crucial ______ occurring.

development

Reduced absorption of niacin, riboflavin, and vB6 can occur during pregnancy, affecting maternal anabolic and catabolic phases. This reduction in absorption can impact the overall ______ of the mother and the fetus.

nutrition

Low lying placenta is associated with increased risk of ______

complications

Gestational age is measured from the first day of the last menstrual period to the delivery day in ______

weeks

Postmature delivery, also known as overdue labor, occurs after ______ gestational weeks

42

Placenta starts to deteriorate after ______ weeks

38

Induced delivery may be necessary when the pregnancy is ______ past its expected date

2 weeks

Physiological changes during late pregnancy lead to an increased oxidation and formation of free radicals, known as a pro-oxidative ______

state

Excess iron supplementation can lead to the formation of more free radicals through the ______ reaction

Fenton

Higher levels of estrogen during pregnancy may cause a lower survival rate and birth rate due to ______

complications

Higher levels of cortisol during pregnancy can cause insulin resistance in ______

diabetics

HCG (human chorionic gonadotropin) maintains early pregnancy and stimulates the production of ______ and progesterone

estrogen

HCS (human chorionic somatotropin) increases maternal insulin resistance to maintain glucose availability for the ______

fetus

Progesterone-induced relaxation of smooth muscle can lead to a decrease in lower oesophagus ______ pressure

sphincter

In female, insulin increases reducing sex hormone binding globin (SHGB) increasing level of ______ in ovary disrupted egg development

testosterone

In male, fate cells convert testosterone into ______ increasing level of estrogen

estrogen

Decreased sperm production oxidative stress elevates sperm and sperm DNA damage remarks changes of hormone availability interfere with reproductive processes irregular menstrual cycle anovulatory cycle ______

amenorrhea

Reduced sperm production hormone availability changes with fat content more the amount of fat cell, higher the ______ level

leptin

Feedback loop to maintain constant fat micronutrients zinc (male) reduced oxidative stress promotes sperm maturation enhance ______ synthesis

testosterone

High intake of soy protein may possibility lengthen menstrual cycle and decreased ______ level

FSH

Irrelevant to probability of conception, sperm motility and sperm morphology ______

caffeine

No more than 2 drinks per day : lower sperm count and quality Female: no more than 1 drink per day : lower chance of ______

conception

High exposure cause change in sperm morphology example: male in the high exposure of lead disrupts hormonal communication between pituitary gland and testes lower ______ level

testosterone

Loss of menstrual cycle anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa possibly linked to hypothalamic ______

amenorrhea

Chronic energy deficits and intense physical activity ______

amenorrhea

Higher chance in miscarriage, preterm delivery, deliver low birth weight infants ovulation and menstruation resume normal with normal eating and weigth gain for female athlete triad ( low energy availability) chronic energy deficits and intense physical activity ______

amenorrhea

This quiz covers topics related to postmature delivery, including the effects of a low-lying placenta and gestational age. It also addresses potential complications, such as decreased oxygen supply to the fetus and the need for induced delivery.

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