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42 Questions

Which lobe of the pituitary gland is composed of neural tissue?

Posterior pituitary

What is the function of oxytocin released by the posterior pituitary?

Milk letdown during lactation

Which of the following hormones is produced by the anterior pituitary and stimulates the release of thyroid hormones?

Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH)

What is the result of hyposecretion of anterior pituitary hormones?

Hypothyroidism

Which of the following glands is NOT an endocrine gland?

Skeletal muscle

What is the primary function of insulin produced by the beta cells of the pancreas?

Inhibits glycogen breakdown in the liver and targets most cells

What is the primary function of the posterior pituitary?

Stores and releases hormones produced by the hypothalamus

Which gland is responsible for producing the hormone melatonin, and what is its primary function?

Pituitary gland, regulates sleep-wake cycles

What is the effect of oxytocin on the uterus during childbirth?

Stimulates uterine contractions

What is the primary function of estrogen produced by the ovaries in females?

Causes breast development and regulates uterine mucosa

What is the primary function of the hormone human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG) produced by the placenta?

Maintains uterine thickness and elevates progesterone levels

What is the primary function of antidiuretic hormone (ADH)?

Retains water and prevents urine formation

What is the primary function of the thymus gland?

Produces thymosin and is involved in the development of T-lymphocytes

What is the result of a decrease in ADH release?

Diabetes insipidus

What is the term for the deficiency of insulin production or activity, characterized by polyuria, polydipsia, and polyphagia?

Diabetes Mellitus

What is the function of the anterior pituitary?

Produces and releases hormones that regulate various bodily functions

What is the effect of growth hormone (GH) hyposecretion in children?

Pituitary dwarfism

What is the function of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH)?

Stimulates the release of thyroid hormones from the thyroid gland

What is the effect of calcitonin on blood calcium levels?

Decreases blood calcium levels

Which of the following organs produces both endocrine and exocrine products?

Pancreas and gonads.

What is the result of hyposecretion of anterior pituitary hormones?

Hypothyroidism and hypoadrenalism.

What is the main difference between the neurohypophysis and the adenohypophysis?

The neurohypophysis is composed of neural tissue, whereas the adenohypophysis is composed of glandular tissue.

What is the relationship between the hypothalamus and the pituitary gland?

The hypothalamus is a region of the brain that regulates the pituitary gland through nervous and hormonal signals.

What is the effect of oxytocin on the mammary gland?

It stimulates the contraction of mammary gland smooth muscle, leading to the release of milk.

What is the function of glucagon produced by the pancreatic islets?

Increases blood glucose levels

What is the function of the adrenal cortex?

Synthesizes and releases steroid hormones called corticosteroids

What is the primary function of the hormone produced by the pineal gland?

Regulation of sleep-wake cycles

Which of the following hormones is involved in the regulation of water reabsorption in the kidneys?

Antidiuretic hormone (ADH)

What is the effect of hyposecretion of anterior pituitary hormones on the thyroid gland?

Decreased production of thyroid hormones

What is the primary function of the hormone produced by the adrenal cortex?

Regulation of electrolyte balance

What is the effect of oxytocin on the uterus during childbirth?

Contraction of uterine muscles

Which of the following glands is responsible for producing the hormone that regulates calcium levels in the blood?

Parathyroid gland

What is the primary function of the hypothalamic-pituitary portal system?

To transport releasing and inhibiting hormones from the hypothalamus to the anterior pituitary

What is the effect of hypersecretion of antidiuretic hormone (ADH)?

Retention of sodium and water, leading to increased blood pressure

What is the primary function of the zona reticularis of the adrenal cortex?

To produce gonadocorticoids, such as androgens

What is the effect of hyposecretion of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) on the thyroid gland?

Decreased production of thyroid hormones

What is the primary function of the parafollicular cells of the thyroid gland?

To produce calcitonin

What is the effect of hypersecretion of growth hormone (GH) in adults?

Acromegaly, with overgrowth of hand, feet, and face

What is the primary function of the zona glomerulosa of the adrenal cortex?

To produce mineralocorticoids, such as aldosterone

What is the effect of hyposecretion of parathyroid hormone (PTH)?

Decreased blood calcium levels

What is the primary function of the adrenal medulla?

To produce epinephrine and norepinephrine

What is the effect of hypersecretion of thyroid hormones on the body?

Increased metabolic rate and energy expenditure

Study Notes

Pituitary Gland

  • The pituitary gland is composed of two lobes: anterior (adenohypophysis) and posterior (neurohypophysis)
  • Anterior pituitary: made of simple cuboidal epithelium, produces hormones, and releases them into the bloodstream
  • Posterior pituitary: neural tissue, stores and releases hormones produced by the hypothalamus
  • Hypophyseal portal system: a circulatory system that allows the hypothalamus to regulate hormone secretion by the anterior pituitary

Posterior Pituitary Hormones

  • Oxytocin: stimulates uterine contractions during childbirth, triggers milk ejection, and plays a role in sexual arousal and orgasm
  • Antidiuretic Hormone (ADH): regulates water retention in the kidneys, increases blood pressure, and is inhibited by alcohol

Anterior Pituitary Hormones

  • Growth Hormone (GH): stimulates protein synthesis, promotes fat use for fuel, and targets bone and skeletal muscle
  • Thyroid-Stimulating Hormone (TSH): stimulates the release of thyroid hormones
  • Adrenocorticotropic Hormone (ACTH): stimulates the release of cortisol from the adrenal cortex
  • Follicle-Stimulating Hormone (FSH): targets ovaries and testes, regulates sperm production and egg maturation
  • Luteinizing Hormone (LH): targets ovaries and testes, regulates testosterone production and ovulation
  • Prolactin: stimulates lactation and is involved in milk production

Thyroid Gland

  • The thyroid gland is the largest endocrine gland, producing triiodothyronine, thyroxine, and calcitonin
  • Thyroid hormones: T₃ and T₄, regulate cellular metabolism
  • Hypothyroidism: a condition characterized by low thyroid hormone levels, resulting in cretinism in children and myxedema in adults
  • Hyperthyroidism: a condition characterized by high thyroid hormone levels, resulting in Grave's disease

Parathyroid Glands

  • The parathyroid glands are located in the posterior aspect of the thyroid gland
  • Parathyroid Hormone (PTH): regulates calcium levels, stimulates osteoclast activity, and targets osseous tissue, kidneys, and intestines
  • Hypoparathyroidism: a condition characterized by low PTH levels, resulting in low calcium levels and muscle twitching
  • Hyperparathyroidism: a condition characterized by high PTH levels, resulting in high calcium levels and bone weakening

Adrenal Glands

  • The adrenal glands are paired, pyramid-shaped organs located on top of the kidneys
  • Adrenal cortex: produces corticosteroids, including aldosterone, cortisol, and androgens
  • Adrenal medulla: produces epinephrine and norepinephrine, which regulate the "fight or flight" response

Pancreas

  • The pancreas is a triangular gland located behind the stomach
  • Pancreatic islets (islets of Langerhans): produce glucagon, which increases blood glucose levels
  • Glucagon: stimulates glycogenolysis and gluconeogenesis

Endocrine System

  • The endocrine system acts with the nervous system to coordinate and integrate body cell activities
  • Endocrine glands: pituitary, thyroid, parathyroids, adrenals, and pineal gland
  • The endocrine system influences metabolic activities through hormones transported in the blood### Insulin and Diabetes
  • Produced by beta cells in the pancreas, insulin lowers blood glucose levels by targeting the liver and most cells.
  • Insulin inhibits glycogen breakdown and promotes glycogen synthesis.
  • Diabetes Mellitus (DM) occurs due to hyposecretion or hypoactivity of insulin, resulting in signs such as:
    • Polyuria (excessive urine output)
    • Polydipsia (excessive thirst)
    • Polyphagia (excessive hunger and food consumption)
    • Hyperinsulinism (causes hypoglycemia)

Pineal Gland and Melatonin

  • Located in the brain, the pineal gland produces melatonin from serotonin through pinealocytes.
  • Melatonin regulates sleep/wake cycles, increasing in the evening to induce sleepiness.
  • Sunlight inhibits melatonin release, and its deficiency can cause Seasonal Affective Disorder (SAD).

Gonads and Sex Hormones

  • Female gonads (ovaries) produce estrogen and progesterone, responsible for:
    • Maturation of reproductive organs
    • Appearance of secondary sex characteristics (e.g., adipose tissue in breasts and buttocks)
  • Estrogen specifically:
    • Causes breast development
    • Initiates cyclic changes in uterine mucosa
  • Male gonads (testes) produce testosterone, necessary for:
    • Maturation of male reproductive organs
    • Appearance of secondary sexual characteristics and sex drive
    • Sperm production

Placenta and Human Chorionic Gonadotropin (HCG)

  • The placenta produces HCG, which:
    • Maintains uterine thickness
    • Maintains corpus luteum
    • Elevates progesterone levels

Thymus and Thymosin

  • The thymus gland produces thymosin, involved in the normal development of T-lymphocytes.
  • The thymus gland is large in infants and children, but diminishes in size throughout adulthood.

Hormones and Chemical Messengers

  • Hormones are long-distance chemical signals that travel in the blood or lymph.
  • Autocrines are hormones that exert effects on the same cells that secrete them.
  • Paracrines are locally acting hormones that affect cells other than those that secrete them.
  • There are two main classes of hormones, with varying chemical structures and functions.

Test your knowledge on the pituitary gland, particularly the adenohypophysis and neurohypophysis, and their relationships with the hypothalamus. Learn about the production, storage, and release of hormones like oxytocin and antidiuretic hormone (ADH).

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