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Pathophysiology Respiratory Diseases Lecture #2 Symptoms Quiz

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48 Questions

What does the term 'Clubbing' refer to in relation to respiratory diseases?

Poor distal circulation

Which term is used to describe 'musical whistling' sounds during breathing?

Wheezing

What does 'Stridor' indicate in the context of respiratory diseases?

Airway obstruction

What can cause 'Crackles' or 'Rales' in the lungs?

Pneumonia or Pulmonary edema

'Hypoxemia' refers to the condition of:

Not enough Oxygen

What is a common viral infection in children that leads to airway narrowing, obstruction, and respiratory failure?

Laryngotracheobronchitis

Which disease is characterized by increased upper respiratory exudate and manifests as hoarseness, sore throat, and difficulty breathing?

Laryngotracheobronchitis

Which condition involves inflammation of the larynx and presents with manifestations such as weak voice, sore throat, and dry cough?

Epiglottitis

Which respiratory condition is caused by overuse and can lead to manifestations like pain on palpation of the anterior neck and muffled voice?

Epiglottitis

What is the common name for the viral infection that causes airway swelling in children, leading to seal-like barking cough and dyspnea?

Croup

Which condition involves increased production of mucus, trapping of air in the lungs, decreased oxygen exchange, dyspnea, and wheezing?

Emphysema

Which condition is characterized by a barking cough in children?

Croup

What is the treatment of choice for croup?

Racemic Epinephrine

Which of the following is a common manifestation of the common cold?

Nasal congestion

What is the incubation period for the common cold?

2-3 days

Which condition is characterized by inflammation of the sinus cavities?

Sinusitis

What is a life-threatening condition that occludes the airway due to inflammation of the epiglottis?

Epiglottitis

Which of the following is a common manifestation of epiglottitis?

Stridor

Which of the following is the most common cause of bronchiolitis?

Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV)

Which of the following is NOT a typical manifestation of bronchiolitis?

Chest pain

Which type of pneumonia is confined to a single lobe of the lung?

Lobular pneumonia

Which of the following is the most frequent type of pneumonia?

Bronchopneumonia

Which of the following is routinely caused by viruses or uncommon bacteria?

Interstitial pneumonia

Which of the following is acquired outside the hospital or healthcare setting?

Community-acquired pneumonia

Which of the following is a potential treatment for bronchiolitis?

Bronchodilators

Which of the following is a common cause of aspiration pneumonia?

Impaired gag reflex

Which of the following diagnostic tests is typically used for bronchiolitis?

All of the above

What is the primary diagnostic tool used to confirm pneumonia?

Sputum cultures

Which symptom is most commonly associated with pneumonia in the elderly?

Mental status changes

What is the key characteristic of tuberculosis primary infection?

Formation of granuloma and tubercle

Which preventive measure is specifically recommended for tuberculosis?

Frequent hand washing

What is the most appropriate initial treatment for tuberculosis?

Antibiotics

Which type of hypersensitivity reaction is associated with the spread of tuberculosis to lymph nodes?

Type IV

What is the key principle emphasized in the text for managing the airway?

Continually practicing multiple airway techniques

What is the recommended first step in airway management?

Assess the patient's physical features and anatomy

What is the significance of the '3-3-2' rule mentioned in the text?

The distance between the patient's teeth, hyoid-mental distance, and thyroid-to-mouth distance should each be 3, 3, and 2 finger widths, respectively.

What is the purpose of the Mallampati assessment mentioned in the text?

To classify the ease of visualizing the oropharyngeal structures

Which of the following airway management techniques is considered the 'Best Way To Manage And Open The Airway' according to the text?

Jaw thrust

What is the purpose of the 'Range Time' mentioned in the text?

To practice airway management techniques in simulation exercises

What is the significance of the '4-90's' mentioned in the text?

The desired outcomes for airway management: 90% first-time pass success rate for endotracheal intubation, SpO2 above 90%, and systolic blood pressure above 90 mmHg

What is the purpose of the 'Scissor Technique' mentioned in the text?

To open the airway by tilting the patient's head back

What is the best way to manage BVM ventilations according to the text?

Two person, two thumbs up, jaw thrust

What is the optimal position for intubating a non-traumatic adult patient?

Sniffing position

What should be done when intubating an adult patient?

Remove the stylet and do not let go of the tube

What is the best way to manage an airway using a bag valve mask?

Two person, two thumbs up, jaw thrust

What is the optimal position for intubating a child or pediatric patient?

Sniffing position

What should be done when intubating an adult patient to ensure proper blade and body position?

Look for the anatomical landmarks

What is the best way to manage BVM ventilations according to the traditional method?

C-E or C-3, the traditional way of utilizing the BVM

Study Notes

Signs and Symptoms of Respiratory Disease

  • Dyspnea: difficulty breathing
  • Orthopnea: sitting up to breathe
  • Apnea: not breathing
  • Hypoxemia: not enough oxygen
  • Cyanosis: blue color in nail beds/lips
  • Sputum: secretion from the lungs
  • Hemoptysis: coughing up blood
  • Cough: productive vs. nonproductive
  • Clubbing: related to poor distal circulation

Rhonchi, Rales, and Crackles

  • Rhonchi: rattling, rumbling lower airway obstructions
  • Rales or Crackles: fluid in smaller airways, related to pneumonia or pulmonary edema
  • "Wet Lungs" and CHF: fluid moved from intravascular to interstitial space, related to high pressures in the pulmonary circulation

Wheezing and Stridor

  • Wheezing: musical whistling, turbulent air movement through constricted bronchioles
  • Stridor: airway obstruction, hoarseness, or croup in children, related to upper airway passages

Upper Respiratory Diseases

  • URI (Acute Rhinitis): common cold, highly contagious, caused by the rhinovirus
  • Allergic Rhinitis (Hay fever): inflammation of the nasal mucosa
  • Sinusitis: inflammation of the sinus cavities, caused by virus, bacteria, or fungus
  • Epiglottitis: life-threatening, inflammation of the epiglottis, usually caused by influenza
  • Laryngitis: inflammation of the larynx, usually self-limiting
  • Pharyngitis: inflammation of the pharynx
  • Epistaxies: nosebleed
  • Infectious Rhinitis: common cold, highly contagious, caused by the rhinovirus

Diseases of the Bronchi and Lungs

  • Asthma
  • Atelectasis
  • Acute Bronchitis
  • Pneumonia
  • Influenza
  • Pulmonary Abscess
  • Lung Cancer
  • Pulmonary TB
  • COPD
  • Bronchiolitis: inflammation of the bronchioles, commonly caused by Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV)
  • Chronic Bronchitis: increased production of mucus, trapping of air in lungs, decreased O2 exchange, dyspnea, tachypnea, wheezing, coughing

Pneumonia

  • Causes: infectious agents, injurious agents or events, and pulmonary secretion stasis
  • Viral: usually mild, can lead to secondary bacterial pneumonia
  • Bacterial: more common than viral, usually Streptococcus pneumoniae
  • Aspiration pneumonia: impaired gag reflex, improper lower esophageal sphincter closure, and inappropriate tube feeding placement
  • Lobular pneumonia: confined to a single lobe
  • Bronchopneumonia: a patchy pneumonia throughout several lobes
  • Interstitial pneumonia or atypical: occurs in the areas between the alveoli, caused by viruses or uncommon bacteria
  • Nosocomial pneumonia: develops more than 48 hours after hospital admission
  • Community-acquired pneumonia: acquired outside the hospital or healthcare setting

Airway Management

  • "Learn as many techniques and execute as one"
  • Have a "game plan" consisting of multiple airway techniques
  • Continually run these algorithms in your mind
  • Practice these skills in simulation exercises
  • Utilize these skills when an opportunity presents

Pre-Plan Airway Management

  • "System One Training"
  • "Range Time"
  • Airway is a team sport
  • Have confidence!
  • Assessment of your patient
  • Develop a plan and delegate
  • Predict the worst
  • Interventions
  • Evaluate
  • REMEMBER THE 4-90'S

Test your knowledge on the signs and symptoms of respiratory diseases with this quiz based on the lecture by Steve Casarez, RN, NRP. Identify key indicators such as dyspnea, hypoxemia, cyanosis, sputum, clubbing, rales or crackles, and more.

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