Microbiology Terminology Quiz

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What is the term for microorganisms that colonize a host without causing disease?

Normal Flora

Which type of infection occurs when the infectious agent spreads throughout the body by blood or lymph?

Systemic infection

What is the term for the capacity of bacteria to cause disease by overcoming the host defenses?

Virulence factors

Which mechanism of bacterial pathogenicity involves the ability to invade tissues and encompass mechanisms for colonization and production of substances facilitating invasion?

Invasiveness

What is the term for the bacterial extracellular substances that break down primary or secondary defenses of the body?

Spreading factors

Which type of resistance must be induced or turned on by host exposure to a pathogen and is directed against specific microbes?

Acquired immunity

What is the normal pH range maintained by the normal bacterial microorganisms of the adult human vagina?

3.4 - 4.5

What are the dominant bacterial species in dental plaque?

Streptococcus sanguis

What is dental caries?

A bacterial infection causing demineralization and destruction of teeth

What is the term for non-sterile sites that have normal flora and are directly exposed to the environment?

Contaminated sites

What type of resistance involves skin as a physical barrier, nasal hairs, and a reflex of coughing as protective mechanisms?

Innate immunity

What is the term for substances or features of a microorganism that help it infect and cause disease?

Virulence factors

What is the term used to describe bacteria and fungi that are permanent residents of certain body sites?

Commensals

Which term is used to describe the acquisition of a new organism to a site in the body?

Colonization

What type of relationship exists when two or more organisms co-exist in close physical association?

Symbiosis

In which type of symbiotic relationship do both partners benefit?

Mutualism

What is the term for a type of relationship in which one organism benefits and the other is unaffected?

Commensalism

What is the term for a relationship in which one organism benefits at the expense of the other?

Parasitism

What is the ability of a microorganism to cause disease by overcoming the host's defenses known as?

Pathogenicity

What is the term used for an infected person who can either be a case or a carrier of an infection?

Endogenous

What is the term for a disease that is transferred from animal to human?

Zoonotic

Which type of pathogen is only capable of causing disease when the immune system is overcome or when introduced to an unusual location?

Opportunistic pathogen

Which term is used to describe bacteria and fungi that are permanent residents of certain body sites?

Normal Flora

What is the term for a relationship in which one organism benefits at the expense of the other?

Parasitism

Which mechanism of bacterial pathogenicity involves the ability to invade tissues and encompass mechanisms for colonization and production of substances facilitating invasion?

Virulence Factors production

What is the term for substances or features of a microorganism that help it infect and cause disease?

Virulence Factors

In which type of symbiotic relationship do both partners benefit?

Mutualism

What is the term for microorganisms that colonize a host without causing disease?

Commensals

Which term describes a type of symbiotic relationship in which one organism (parasite) benefits at the expense of the other (host)?

Parasitism

What is the term for a localized infection where invading microorganisms are limited to a small area (e.g. abscesses)?

Localized infection

Which type of pathogen is never completely eliminated, remains inactive in the body, but can be reactivated if the immune system is weak?

Latent pathogen

What do we call the time between the initial infection and the first appearance of signs and symptoms of a disease?

Incubation period

What is the term for substances or features of a microorganism that help it infect and cause disease?

Virulence factors

Which type of resistance must be induced or turned on by host exposure to a pathogen and is directed against specific microbes?

Adaptive resistance

What do we call non-sterile sites that have normal flora and are directly exposed to the environment?

Non-sterile sites

What is the term for a rapid onset, short-duration infectious disease like influenza?

Acute disease

Which mechanism of bacterial pathogenicity involves the ability to invade tissues and encompass mechanisms for colonization and production of substances facilitating invasion?

Invasion factors

What do we call microorganisms that colonize a host without causing disease, and can prevent colonization by pathogens and simulate the production of natural antibodies?

Normal flora

What is dental caries?

Bacterial infection that causes demineralization and destruction of tooth tissues.

What is normal pH maintained by normal bacterial microorganisms in the adult human vagina?

3.4 – 4.5

What is the term for the ability of a microorganism to produce toxins?

Toxigenesis

Which bacterial substance is associated with the cell walls of Gram-negative bacteria?

Lipopolysaccharides

Which bacterial toxin is released into the extracellular environment of pathogenic bacteria?

Exotoxins

Which mechanism of bacterial pathogenicity encompasses mechanisms for colonization, production of extracellular substances facilitating invasion, and ability to bypass or overcome host defense mechanisms?

Invasiveness

Which type of bacterial toxin is soluble in body fluids and easily diffused into blood, making them highly specific and lethal?

Exotoxins

What is the term used to describe the establishment of the pathogen at the appropriate portal of entry?

Colonization

Which type of bacterial toxin is found in the lipid portion of the outer wall of Gram-negative bacteria?

Lipopolysaccharides

Test your knowledge of microbiology terminology with this quiz. Explore concepts such as normal flora, commensals, colonization, and symbiosis.

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