Igneous Rocks and Formation Processes

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18 Questions

What is the characteristic feature of obsidian?

Glassy texture

Which rock is considered the mafic counterpart of pumice?

Scoria

What is the main difference between gabbro and basalt in terms of mineral composition?

Gabbro contains minor amounts of olivine & amphibole.

How do the crystal sizes of intrusive rocks compare to extrusive rocks?

Intrusive rocks have larger crystals due to longer cooling time.

What process leads to the formation of vesicles in rocks like pumice?

Trapped gas bubbles expanding

Which rock is an extrusive felsic rock formed from extremely rapid cooling?

Pumice

What is the main factor that determines the composition of magma?

The type of minerals present in the source rock

Which of the following is not a common sedimentary structure?

Foliation

What is the primary driver of the formation of sedimentary rocks?

Weathering and erosion of pre-existing rocks

Which of the following is not a common igneous rock?

Gneiss

What is the main driver of the formation of metamorphic rocks?

Changes in temperature and pressure

Which of the following is a common sedimentary structure that indicates the direction of water flow?

Cross-bedding

What is the main source of sediment for the formation of sedimentary rocks?

Biological origin, other rocks, or evaporites

Which of the following processes is responsible for the formation of magma?

Decreasing pressure

What differentiates extrusive igneous rocks from intrusive igneous rocks?

Extrusive rocks cool at the Earth's surface

What is the role of volatiles in the formation of magma?

They trigger the melting process

What type of boundary is typically associated with decompression melting?

Divergent plate boundary

What is the major difference in the formation of sedimentary rocks and metamorphic rocks?

Metamorphic rocks form from heat and pressure

Explore the characteristics and formation processes of common igneous rocks like basalt, gabbro, and obsidian. Learn how these rocks are formed and their distinct mineral compositions.

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