Rock Cycle and Igneous Rock Formation
19 Questions
0 Views
3.8 Stars

Rock Cycle and Igneous Rock Formation

Learn about the rock life cycle and the formation of igneous rocks from molten lava or magma. Understand the geological processes that shape our planet.

Created by
@AccomplishedBixbite

Questions and Answers

What is the primary source of heat for hydrothermal fluids?

Magmatic activity under the Earth

What is the main difference between contact metamorphism and regional metamorphism?

The location where the process occurs

What happens to the crystals in metamorphic rock when it is subjected to intense heat and pressure?

They recrystallize into larger crystals or new minerals

What is the characteristic feature of foliated metamorphic rocks?

<p>They have visible layers or alignments</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the process by which metamorphic rock can become sedimentary rock?

<p>Weathering and erosion</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the term for the process by which rocks are transformed into metamorphic rocks?

<p>Metamorphism</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the type of plate boundary that can cause extreme accumulations of sediments and lead to metamorphism?

<p>Convergent plate boundary</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the result of a metamorphic rock being subducted into the crust through tectonic processes?

<p>It melts into magma and crystallizes as igneous rock</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the process by which an igneous rock can become sedimentary rock again?

<p>Weathering and erosion</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the primary location where contact metamorphism occurs?

<p>Under the surface next to plutons</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the result of intense pressures and heat on metamorphic rock?

<p>It recrystallizes into new minerals</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is an example of a non-foliated metamorphic rock?

<p>Marble</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the process by which rocks can become buried and undergo metamorphism?

<p>Tectonic plate collisions</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the characteristic of non-foliated metamorphic rocks?

<p>No visible alignment of minerals</p> Signup and view all the answers

What happens to sedimentary rocks under extreme pressure?

<p>They become metamorphic rocks</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the process by which rocks can change from one type to another?

<p>Rock cycle</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the term for the process by which rocks are subjected to heat and pressure?

<p>Metamorphism</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is an example of a foliated metamorphic rock?

<p>Gneiss</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the ultimate fate of metamorphic rocks if they are subducted into the crust?

<p>They melt into magma</p> Signup and view all the answers

Study Notes

The Rock Life Cycle

  • The rock life cycle is the natural Earth process of how rocks form and convert between types.
  • There are three types of rocks: igneous rocks, metamorphic rocks, and sedimentary rocks.
  • These three rock types continually form through geological processes, which are slow compared to the human lifetime.

Formation of Igneous Rocks

  • Igneous rocks form from molten lava or magma, which is liquid rock.
  • Molten magma or lava crystallizes and forms igneous rocks.
  • Igneous rocks can be transformed into metamorphic rocks through intense heat and pressure.
  • Igneous rocks can be weathered and eroded into sediment and cemented into sedimentary rocks.

Formation of Sedimentary Rocks

  • Sedimentary rocks form from sediments that are broken off other rocks and cemented back together.
  • Weathering is the first step in the sedimentary rock cycle, where tiny pieces break off the original rock.
  • Erosion moves the broken pieces of rock away, and deposition is the process of placing the sediments somewhere else.
  • Compaction and cementation are the processes by which sediments that have accumulated stick together.
  • There are three types of sedimentary rocks: clastic rocks, organic rocks, and chemical rocks.

Clastic Sedimentary Rocks

  • Clastic sedimentary rocks are formed from the basic sedimentary process.
  • The particles and pieces that form the sediments of these rocks are called clasts.
  • Examples of clastic sedimentary rocks include conglomerate, shale, and fossiliferous limestones.

Organic Sedimentary Rocks

  • Organic sedimentary rocks are formed from the layered and cemented remains of plants and animals.
  • Examples of organic sedimentary rocks include types of coal, such as peat, lignite, and bituminous coal.

Chemical Sedimentary Rocks

  • Chemical sedimentary rocks are formed through precipitation, where ions from the rocks dissolve into the water and form a solution.
  • Examples of chemical sedimentary rocks include halite (table salt), limestone, and nodular types of chert.

Formation of Metamorphic Rocks

  • Metamorphic rocks are formed from igneous, sedimentary, or other metamorphic rocks.
  • Metamorphic rocks are formed through intense pressures and heat processes, and sometimes interaction with fluids.
  • The rock physically and chemically changes as a result of these processes.
  • There are two main processes of metamorphism: contact metamorphism and regional metamorphism.

Contact Metamorphism

  • Contact metamorphism occurs next to igneous intrusions under the surface (plutons).
  • Contact metamorphism can also occur next to hydrothermal fluids.

Regional Metamorphism

  • Regional metamorphism occurs over a larger area due to the pressures of tectonic plates colliding.
  • Regional metamorphism causes mountains to uplift and rocks to fold.

Characteristics of Metamorphic Rocks

  • Metamorphic rocks can be foliated or non-foliated.
  • Foliations are visible layers, and an alignment of crystals, sediments, and minerals can generally be seen.
  • Examples of metamorphic rocks include marble, gneiss, and schist.

The Rock Cycle

  • The rock cycle is a model of how every rock can experience every type of being a rock given the right geological circumstances.
  • Each rock's life cycle will be unique to the geological experiences it has over time.
  • The rock cycle shows how rocks are created, altered, and destroyed over time.

The Rock Life Cycle

  • The rock life cycle is the natural Earth process of how rocks form and convert between types.
  • There are three types of rocks: igneous rocks, metamorphic rocks, and sedimentary rocks.
  • These three rock types continually form through geological processes, which are slow compared to the human lifetime.

Formation of Igneous Rocks

  • Igneous rocks form from molten lava or magma, which is liquid rock.
  • Molten magma or lava crystallizes and forms igneous rocks.
  • Igneous rocks can be transformed into metamorphic rocks through intense heat and pressure.
  • Igneous rocks can be weathered and eroded into sediment and cemented into sedimentary rocks.

Formation of Sedimentary Rocks

  • Sedimentary rocks form from sediments that are broken off other rocks and cemented back together.
  • Weathering is the first step in the sedimentary rock cycle, where tiny pieces break off the original rock.
  • Erosion moves the broken pieces of rock away, and deposition is the process of placing the sediments somewhere else.
  • Compaction and cementation are the processes by which sediments that have accumulated stick together.
  • There are three types of sedimentary rocks: clastic rocks, organic rocks, and chemical rocks.

Clastic Sedimentary Rocks

  • Clastic sedimentary rocks are formed from the basic sedimentary process.
  • The particles and pieces that form the sediments of these rocks are called clasts.
  • Examples of clastic sedimentary rocks include conglomerate, shale, and fossiliferous limestones.

Organic Sedimentary Rocks

  • Organic sedimentary rocks are formed from the layered and cemented remains of plants and animals.
  • Examples of organic sedimentary rocks include types of coal, such as peat, lignite, and bituminous coal.

Chemical Sedimentary Rocks

  • Chemical sedimentary rocks are formed through precipitation, where ions from the rocks dissolve into the water and form a solution.
  • Examples of chemical sedimentary rocks include halite (table salt), limestone, and nodular types of chert.

Formation of Metamorphic Rocks

  • Metamorphic rocks are formed from igneous, sedimentary, or other metamorphic rocks.
  • Metamorphic rocks are formed through intense pressures and heat processes, and sometimes interaction with fluids.
  • The rock physically and chemically changes as a result of these processes.
  • There are two main processes of metamorphism: contact metamorphism and regional metamorphism.

Contact Metamorphism

  • Contact metamorphism occurs next to igneous intrusions under the surface (plutons).
  • Contact metamorphism can also occur next to hydrothermal fluids.

Regional Metamorphism

  • Regional metamorphism occurs over a larger area due to the pressures of tectonic plates colliding.
  • Regional metamorphism causes mountains to uplift and rocks to fold.

Characteristics of Metamorphic Rocks

  • Metamorphic rocks can be foliated or non-foliated.
  • Foliations are visible layers, and an alignment of crystals, sediments, and minerals can generally be seen.
  • Examples of metamorphic rocks include marble, gneiss, and schist.

The Rock Cycle

  • The rock cycle is a model of how every rock can experience every type of being a rock given the right geological circumstances.
  • Each rock's life cycle will be unique to the geological experiences it has over time.
  • The rock cycle shows how rocks are created, altered, and destroyed over time.

Studying That Suits You

Use AI to generate personalized quizzes and flashcards to suit your learning preferences.

Quiz Team

More Quizzes Like This

Use Quizgecko on...
Browser
Browser