Hypolipidemic Drugs and Atherosclerosis Quiz

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14 Questions

What is the condition that leads to coronary artery disease (CAD) and peripherical artery disease (PAD) due to a build-up of plaque in the blood vessels?

Atherosclerosis

Which type of plaque is characterized by the presence of Ca++ and can harden over time, reducing blood flow and oxygen supply?

Stable plaque

What happens when the fibrous cap of the plaque ruptures, leading to the formation of a blood clot that blocks the artery, potentially causing a heart attack or stroke?

Formation of unstable plaque

What important function does cholesterol serve related to digestion, hormone synthesis, and cell membranes?

Helps to digest dietary fats and is important for hormone synthesis

Which lipoprotein is composed of apoprotein B-100 + cholesterol?

Low-density lipoprotein (LDL)

What is the main form of fat from our diet and is needed for long-term energy storage?

Triglycerides

Which drug blocks the absorption of dietary cholesterol at the brush border of the small intestine?

Cholesterol absorption inhibitors

Which drug inhibits triglyceride lipolysis in adipose tissue, decreasing fatty acid uptake by the liver to decrease hepatic VLDL-triglyceride synthesis?

Fibric acid derivatives

What is the function of Atorvastatin, Pravastatin, and Rosuvastatin?

Block the conversion of HMG-CoA to mevalonate

What is the adverse effect of vitamins B3 (Niacin)?

Flushing of the skin

What is the primary function of Omega-3 fatty acids?

Reduce plasma triglyceride levels

What is recognized by the LDL receptors on cell surfaces that allow the lipoproteins to enter?

Apoprotein B-100

Which drug inhibits the hepatic uptake of Ap AI, thus increasing HDL while reducing LDL and triglycerides?

Nicotinic acid (Vitamin B3)

Which drug excretes bile salt, cholesterol, and other fats, leading to a decrease in LDL?

Cholestyramine

Study Notes

  • Atherosclerosis is a condition that causes damage to blood vessels, leading to coronary artery disease (CAD) and peripheral artery disease (PAD). Damage can be due to smoking, infection, high blood pressure, and diabetes.
  • Plaque build-up in vessels results from damage, causing reduction in blood flow and oxygen supply.
  • Stable plaque contains calcium and hardens over time, while unstable plaque is more dangerous and can rupture, causing a blood clot and blocking the artery, leading to heart attack, stroke, or aneurysm.
  • Cholesterol is a lipid essential for digesting dietary fats, synthesizing steroid hormones, and creating cell membranes, myelin sheaths, and bile salts.
  • Lipoproteins are a combination of apoproteins and cholesterol, with different densities and functions. VLDL, LDL, and HDL are the main types.
  • Hypolipidemic drugs are used to lower cholesterol levels and prevent atherosclerosis.
  • HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors block the conversion of HMG-CoA to mevalonate, reducing cholesterol synthesis and increasing receptor-mediated uptake, leading to LDL levels decline.
  • Cholesterol absorption inhibitors such as ezetimibe and bile acid sequestrants prevent the absorption of dietary cholesterol and bile salts, reducing LDL levels.
  • Fibric acid derivatives like gemfibrozil and fenofibrate decrease triglyceride levels while increasing HDL.
  • Nicotinic acid, a form of vitamin B3, inhibits the hepatic uptake of Ap AI, increasing HDL and reducing LDL and triglycerides.
  • Fish oil derivatives containing omega-3 fatty acids reduce plasma triglyceride levels.
  • Hypolipidemic drugs have various side effects including myalgia, myopathy, GI problems, insomnia, photosensitivity, and diabetes.

Test your knowledge of hypolipidemic drugs and atherosclerosis, a condition that leads to coronary artery disease (CAD) and peripheral artery disease (PAD). Learn about the causes, effects, and types of plaque in blood vessels.

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