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Pancreas Pt 2 Quiz

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41 Questions

Why does the body experience osmotic diuresis in diabetes mellitus?

To excrete excess glucose via urine

What is the result of the body excreting lots of water with the urine during osmotic diuresis?

Very dilute urine

In diabetes mellitus, why does the body increase thirst (polydipsia)?

To replenish water lost through urine

What role does hepatic gluconeogenesis play in diabetes mellitus?

Provide energy from other sources within the body

How does weight loss occur in diabetes mellitus?

Body takes energy from stored sources due to rapid glucose excretion

What is the consequence of increased lipolysis in diabetes mellitus?

Hyperlipidemia due to high FFA and glycerol in the blood stream

Why does the enzyme HSL become strongly activated in diabetes mellitus?

Due to increased lipolysis

"Polyurea" refers to:

Increased urine due to excreting excess glucose

What is the primary function of glucagon?

To increase blood glucose levels

What is the primary stimulus for glucagon secretion?

Low blood glucose levels

What is the half-life of glucagon in the body?

5-7 minutes

Which cells in the pancreas are responsible for producing glucagon?

Alpha cells

In the glucagon secretion process, what causes the closure of ATP-sensitive potassium channels?

The stimulation of low ATP levels

Which glucose transporter is involved in the initial step of glucagon secretion?

GLUT-1

In glucagon secretion, what happens right after the closure of the ATP-sensitive potassium channels?

Depolarization causes the opening of voltage gated calcium channels

Which statement best describes the relationship between insulin and glucagon secretion?

Insulin secretion is stimulated by high ATP levels, while glucagon secretion is stimulated by low ATP levels

Which of the following is a chronic complication of diabetes caused by hyperglycemia?

Neuropathy

Which cells in the pancreas produce somatostatin?

Delta cells

What is the primary effect of somatostatin on the gastrointestinal (GI) tract?

Decreases motility and secretory activity

Which hormone secreted by the pancreas is stimulated by vagal stimulation, protein ingestion, or GI hormones?

Pancreatic polypeptide

What is the primary effect of pancreatic polypeptide on the gastrointestinal (GI) tract?

Decreases gastric emptying and gut motility

Which hormone secreted by the pancreas has a greater inhibitory effect on glucagon than insulin?

Somatostatin

Which of the following conditions is known to cause neuropathy in cats and dogs?

Diabetes

Which statement is true regarding the pathogenicity (cause) of diabetes neuropathy?

The pathogenicity is not well understood

What is the primary cause of type 1 diabetes mellitus?

Autoimmune destruction of pancreatic beta cells

What is the main reason patients with type 1 diabetes are dependent on insulin?

To increase their chance of survival

What is the primary mechanism by which weight loss occurs in type 1 diabetes?

Inability of glucose to enter and be utilized by skeletal muscle and fat cells

Which of the following is not a common risk factor for type 1 diabetes?

Anorexia

What is the primary mechanism by which glycosuria (presence of glucose in the urine) occurs in type 1 diabetes?

Excretion of glucose due to exceeding the renal tubular threshold

Which of the following is not a common symptom of the "PPP" triad in type 1 diabetes?

Polycythemia

Why does the body experience a state of constant hunger (polyphagia) in type 1 diabetes?

Inability of glucose to enter the satiety center in the brain

What is the primary difference between the effects of glucotoxicity and amyloidosis on beta cell function?

Glucotoxicity causes reversible damage, while amyloidosis causes irreversible damage to beta cells.

Which of the following statements accurately describes the role of amylin in the development of diabetes?

Amylin is secreted by beta cells along with insulin, and its aggregation can lead to amyloidosis and beta cell dysfunction.

What is the primary mechanism by which glucotoxicity impacts insulin secretion?

Glucotoxicity results in progressive impairment of insulin secretion due to chronic exposure to high glucose levels.

According to the information provided, what is the relationship between obesity and the risk of developing diabetes mellitus type 2 in cats?

Obesity increases the risk of developing diabetes by 3.9 times compared to non-obese cats.

Which of the following is a risk factor for the development of diabetes mellitus type 2?

Islet amyloidosis

What is the primary function of amylin?

To increase satiety and reduce gastric emptying, thereby regulating appetite and food intake.

Which of the following statements regarding the prevalence of diabetes mellitus type 1 is true?

It is most common in dogs, occurring in 95% of cases.

Cataracts are the most common long-term complication of diabetes mellitus, occurring mainly in dogs. What is the fist step in cataract development due to diabetes?

Aldose Reductase will reduce the glucose in the eye lens and will produce alcohols: sorbitol and galactitol.

After alcohol production within cataract formation, what occurs next?

Alcohol's osmotic relationship with water will result in water influx into the lens. This results in the swelling and rupture of the eye lens, which is what causes opacity within the eye.

Counterregulatory hormones are hormones that counter the actions of insulin to prevent hypoglycemia. Choose the correct statement in regards to insulin's counterregulatory hormones.

Epinephrine/norepinephrine and glucagon are used in acute response, while cortisol and GH (growth hormone) are used in chronic response.

Study Notes

Diabetes Mellitus: Type 1

  • Characterized by permanent hypoinsulinemia, with an absolute deficiency of insulin
  • No increase in endogenous insulin after stimulation
  • Insulin-dependent to prevent ketoacidosis, maintain glycemia, and increase chance of survival
  • Most common in dogs (95% of cases)
  • Risk factors: auto-immune disorders, genetics, obesity, pancreatitis

Pathophysiology of Diabetes Mellitus

  • Lack of insulin leads to increased blood glucose levels
  • GLUT-4 transporters are compromised, affecting insulin-sensitive tissues
  • Weight loss occurs due to glucose not being transported into skeletal muscle or fat cells
  • Energy is being used in these locations but can't be replenished, causing weight loss symptoms
  • Triggers polyphagia, as the body is constantly in a state of hunger

Hyperglycemic State

  • Results in the "PPP" symptoms of polyurea, polydipsia, and polyphagia
  • Step 1: Insulin deficiency is present
  • Step 2: Hyperglycemia (increased blood glucose levels) occurs due to insulin deficiency
  • Step 3: Glycosuria takes place due to exceeding renal tubular threshold

Diabetes Neuropathy

  • One of the most common chronic complications, where hyperglycemia causes nerve injury in the Schwann cells and axons of myelinated fibers
  • Can also cause microvascular abnormalities
  • Pathogenicity is not well understood, but this condition can occur in dogs and cats

Pancreatic Somatostatin and Pancreatic Polypeptide

  • Somatostatin: decreases motility and secretory activity in the GI tract, inhibits secretion of all endocrine cell types in the Islets of Langerhans
  • Pancreatic Polypeptide: decreases gastric emptying, decreases gut motility, inhibits gallbladder contraction, and inhibits pancreatic digestive enzyme secretion
  • Most common in cats (80% of cases)
  • Risk factors: islet amyloidosis, obesity (metabolic syndrome)

Islet Amyloidosis

  • Amylin (Islet amyloid polypeptide- AKA: IAPP): a polypeptide secreted by beta cells with insulin secretion
  • Amylin works by increasing satiety, reducing gastric emptying, and reducing glucagon production
  • Amyloidosis: the deposition of amyloid within the pancreatic islets, causing irreversible damage to beta cells

Glucotoxicity

  • Reversible damage to beta cells caused by chronic high glucose levels
  • Most commonly found in pre-diabetics

Pathway of Symptom Development

  • Step 4: Osmotic diuresis and polyurea occur due to the body attempting to excrete excess glucose via urine
  • Step 5: The body tries to compensate by increasing thirst (polydipsia) to replenish lost water

Learn about the production, function, and synthesis of glucagon, an important hormone produced by the pancreas. Understand its antagonistic relationship with insulin and the stimuli that trigger its release. Explore the clearance half-life and species-specific threshold levels.

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