Factors Affecting Blood Pressure

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18 Questions

What happens to blood pressure when arterial elasticity decreases?

Blood pressure increases

How does vasoconstriction affect peripheral resistance?

Increases peripheral resistance

If there is a decrease in cardiac output, what happens to blood pressure?

Blood pressure decreases

What effect does high blood viscosity have on blood pressure?

Increases blood pressure

How does an increase in blood volume affect blood pressure?

Increases blood pressure

What is the relationship between cardiac output and blood pressure according to the provided information?

Direct relationship

What is the formula for calculating cardiac output?

Cardiac output = Stroke volume * Pulse rate

Which node is responsible for initiating the heart's contraction?

Sinoatrial node

What is the medical term for an irregular heartbeat pattern?

Arrhythmia

Which age group has the highest normal pulse rate range according to the text?

Teenagers and adults (>12 years)

What is the normal range of beats per minute for a toddler or preschooler (2 to 6 years old)?

80 - 120

Which of the following factors does NOT influence the pulse rate according to the text?

Nutrition

Which term is used to describe respirations that are slow, shallow, and sometimes irregular?

Hypoventilation

What is the normal average respiratory rate for a healthy adult?

16 - 20 breaths/minute

Which component of blood pressure represents the contraction of the left ventricle?

Systolic Pressure

What is the normal blood pressure reading in mmHg for a healthy individual?

120/80 mmHg

What factor is responsible for maintaining blood pressure by regulating the volume of blood pumped by the heart in one minute?

Cardiac Output

What term describes respirations that are rapid and deeper than normal?

Hyperventilation

Study Notes

  • The cardiac output's increase causes arteries to distend more, resulting in an increase in blood pressure.
  • Decreased cardiac output leads to a fall in blood pressure.
  • Peripheral vascular resistance is a significant factor affecting blood pressure.
  • Blood vessels, including arteries, arterioles, capillaries, and veins, transport blood after it leaves the heart.
  • Arterioles' semi-contracted state creates peripheral resistance.
  • Blood volume significantly influences blood pressure; low blood volume equals low blood pressure.
  • High blood viscosity, or stickiness, increases blood pressure due to the heart's need for extra force.
  • Artery elasticity influences peripheral resistance and blood pressure.
  • A pulse is a sensation felt upon palpitation of an artery due to the heart's contraction.
  • The sinoatrial node, located in the right atrium, serves as the heart's pacemaker.
  • Cardiac output is the heart's volume of blood pumped per minute.
  • Age, exercise, temperature, emotions, medications, hemorrhage, pregnancy, and pulmonary conditions affect pulse rates.
  • Normal pulse rates: Newborns (70-170 bpm), infants to 1-year-olds (80-130 bpm), toddlers and preschoolers (80-120 bpm), school-age children (70-110 bpm), teenagers and adults (70-80 bpm).
  • Tachycardia: Rapid heart rate (HR = 100-180 bpm).
  • Bradycardia: Slow heart rate (HR < 60 bpm).
  • Palpitation: Awareness of one's heartbeat without needing to feel it.
  • Dyspnea: Difficult, labored, or painful breathing.
  • Orthopnea: Difficulty breathing in the supine position, requiring sitting up to breathe easily.
  • Crackles: Fluid presence in the lungs, heard during inspiration.
  • Wheezing: Narrowed air passages, heard during inspiration and expiration.
  • Normal respiratory rates: Newborns (35-40 breaths/min), children (20-30 breaths/min), adults (16-20 breaths/min).
  • One respiration equals 4 heartbeats.
  • Hypoventilation: Slow, shallow, and sometimes irregular respirations.
  • Hyperventilation: Rapid and deeper-than-normal respirations.
  • Systolic pressure: Pressure exerted during left ventricle contraction; first number in blood pressure reading.
  • Diastolic pressure: Pressure during heart rest; second number in blood pressure reading.
  • Cardiac output maintains blood pressure.

Learn about the factors that influence blood pressure, including cardiac output and peripheral vascular resistance. Understand the relationship between cardiac output, stroke volume, heart rate, and blood pressure in the circulatory system.

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