Enzymes: Definition, Characteristics, and Types

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What is the main function of oxidoreductases?

Catalyzing oxidation-reduction reactions

Which enzyme class is responsible for catalyzing reactions involving transfer of functional groups?

Transferase

What is the primary characteristic of enzymes as catalysts?

They increase the rate of reaction without being changed themselves

Which enzyme class catalyzes hydrolytic reactions involving the use of water molecules?

Hydrolase

What is the function of hydrolases?

Catalyzing hydrolytic reactions

What type of enzyme catalyzes oxidation-reduction reactions by transferring electrons?

Oxidoreductase

Which type of enzyme catalyzes cleavage of C-C, C-O, CN and other bonds by means other than hydrolysis or oxidation?

Lyases

What is the function of isomerases?

Catalyze intramolecular transfer of groups

What is the function of ligases?

Join molecules with concomitant hydrolysis of diphosphate bond in ATP

What is the primary structure of an enzyme?

Amino acid sequence

Which model proposes that the shape of the substrate and the active site of the enzyme fit together like a key into its lock?

Lock and Key hypothesis

Who proposed the induced fit hypothesis for enzyme-substrate binding?

Daniel E. Koshland, Jr.

What are small, nonprotein units required by many enzymes to carry out their particular reaction?

Coenzymes and cofactors

What is a complete catalytically-active enzyme together with its coenzyme or metal ion called?

Holoenzyme

Which part of the enzyme on its own without its cofactor/ coenzyme is termed as apoenzyme?

Apoenzyme

What is the region of the enzyme that binds the substrate, to form an enzyme–substrate complex, and transforms it into product called?

Active site

Explore the fundamental concepts of enzymes, including their definition, characteristics, types, and the factors that impact their activity. Learn about how enzymes act as catalysts, their specificity, and the effects of their surroundings on their activities.

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