Classical Conditioning and Connectionism in Learning Theories

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12 Questions

What is the main focus of Behavioral Learning Theories?

Observing external behavior

Which of the following is NOT a component of Classical Conditioning according to the text?

Generalization

What did Ivan Pavlov win the Nobel Prize for?

Digestive system physiology

In Classical Conditioning, what is an Unconditioned Stimulus?

Stimulus that automatically produces a response

What happens during Extinction in Classical Conditioning?

The learned response disappears gradually

What should be associated with learning tasks in Classical Conditioning?

Pleasant events

According to Thorndike, which statement best describes the law of effect?

Responses followed by pleasant consequences will be more likely to be repeated.

What is the primary mechanism described in connectionism for learning?

Stimulus-response associations

Which law of learning focuses on the strengthening of connections through practice?

Law of exercise

In the context of learning theory, what does the law of readiness emphasize?

Responses can be chained together to satisfy a goal.

Which psychologist conducted some of the first experiments on animal learning in the late 19th century?

Edward L. Thorndike

How are associations or 'habits' described in connectionism strengthened or weakened?

By the nature and frequency of stimulus-response pairings

Study Notes

Learning Theories

  • Learning theories are set conjectures and hypotheses that explain the process of learning or how learning takes place.
  • Behavioral Learning Theories focus on actual behavior and make conclusions based on observations of external manifestations of learning.

Ivan Pavlov and Classical Conditioning

  • Ivan Pavlov was a Russian physiologist who won the 1904 Nobel Prize in physiology or medicine.
  • Pavlov made major scientific contributions to understanding the physiology of the digestive system.
  • Classical Conditioning believes that individuals learn when a previously neutral stimulus is paired with an unconditioned stimulus until the neutral stimulus evokes a conditioned response.

Key Components of Classical Conditioning

  • Unconditioned stimulus: a stimulus that automatically produces an emotional or physiological response.
  • Unconditioned response: a naturally occurring emotional or physiological response.
  • Neutral stimuli: stimuli that do not elicit a response.
  • Conditioned stimulus: a stimulus that evokes an emotional or physiological response after conditioning.
  • Conditioned response: a learned response to a previously neutral stimulus.

Features of Classical Conditioning

  • Generalization: responding in the same way to similar stimuli.
  • Discrimination: responding differently to similar, but not identical stimuli.
  • Extinction: the gradual disappearance of a learned response.

Guidelines for Using Classical Conditioning

  • Associate positive, pleasant events with learning tasks.
  • Help students to risk anxiety-producing situations voluntarily and successfully.
  • Help students recognize differences and similarities among situations so they can discriminate and generalize properly.

Edward Thorndike and Connectionism

  • Edward Thorndike was an American psychologist who conducted experiments on animal learning.
  • Thorndike formulated the law of effect, which states that behaviors that are followed by pleasant consequences will be more likely to be repeated in the future.
  • Connectionism Learning is the result of associations (or connections) forming between stimuli and responses.

Laws of Learning

  • Law of effect: responses to a situation which are followed by a rewarding state of affairs will be strengthened and become habitual responses to that situation.
  • Law of readiness: a series of responses can be chained together to satisfy some goal which will result in annoyance if blocked.
  • Law of exercise: connections become strengthened with practice and weakened when practice is discontinued.

Explore the concepts of classical conditioning and connectionism in learning theories, with a focus on the works of Ivan Pavlov. This quiz is designed for students studying at the Philippine Normal University National Center for Teacher Education.

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