Cirrhosis Complications Overview

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29 Questions

What is the normal total serum bilirubin level range?

0.3-1.2 mg/dl

What is an early sign of Wilson's disease?

Decreased ceruloplasmin levels

What causes Dubin-Johnson syndrome?

Deficiency in MRP2

What is the primary function of ATP7B in the liver?

Exocytose copper into bile canaliculi

Which condition can lead to dark urine and dark liver?

Obstructive jaundice

What is a common cause of increase in both unconjugated and conjugated bilirubin in the blood?

Viral Hepatitis

Which tissue does free copper primarily accumulate in Wilson's disease?

Liver

What complications can arise from obstructive jaundice?

Pruritis, Steatorrhea

Which symptom is NOT associated with hepatic encephalopathy?

Jaundice

What can trigger renal vasoconstriction leading to hepatorenal failure in cirrhosis?

High portal vein pressure

How does phototherapy help in treating physiologic jaundice of newborns?

Converting bilirubin to a more soluble form

What is the consequence of low liver function in hepatic encephalopathy?

Accumulation of toxins in the brain

In cirrhosis, what happens to estrogen metabolism with liver damage?

Estrogen production increases

What causes the yellow discoloration of skin and eyes in jaundice?

Retention of bilirubin

In compensated cirrhosis, what is the characteristic of the liver?

Presence of small amount of scarring and fibrosis

What is a common symptom of decompensated cirrhosis?

All listed complications and symptoms

How does hepatorenal failure progress from changes in portal flow?

Renal vasoconstriction triggered

'Asterixis', characterized by tremoring or jerky hands when outstretched, is a symptom of which complication?

Hepatic encephalopathy

'Palmar erythema', a condition seen in cirrhosis, is a result of what physiological process?

'CB' secretion by hepatocytes

What is the main cause of liver cirrhosis as discussed in the text?

Excessive alcohol consumption

What are considered the most common risk factors for liver cirrhosis based on the text?

Excessive alcohol consumption and fatty liver (NASH)

What does the presence of regenerative nodules, fibrotic tissue, and collagen indicate in liver pathology?

Formation of scar tissue in the liver

How does liver cirrhosis contribute to the development of jaundice?

By impairing bilirubin excretion

What role do hepatic stellate cells (HSC) play in the pathogenesis of liver fibrosis?

Secreting paracrine factors that stimulate HSC proliferation

In liver cirrhosis, how does the accumulation of fibrotic tissue affect blood flow in the liver?

Compresses central veins and sinusoids

Which factor contributes to activating hepatic stellate cells (HSC) in injured liver tissues?

Paracrine factors from sinusoidal endothelial cells and hepatocytes

What distinguishes liver cirrhosis from end-stage liver disease?

Irreversible fibrosis and scarring

What happens to hepatic stellate cells (HSC) when they are activated?

They lose vitamin A and secrete TGF-β1

How does chronic inflammation in liver cirrhosis contribute to scar tissue formation?

By enhancing natural wound healing processes

This quiz provides an overview of complications of cirrhosis, including Portal Hypertension, Ascites, and Esophageal Varices. Topics covered include the causes, symptoms, and mechanisms of these complications.

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