Buffer Systems and pH Regulation Quiz

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23 Questions

What is the mechanism of compensation for metabolic alkalosis?

Retention of carbon dioxide

In metabolic acidosis, what causes the reduction in bicarbonate levels?

Increased use of bicarbonate for buffering acids

What is the renal compensation mechanism for respiratory acidosis?

Increased bicarbonate reabsorption

How does compensation occur for respiratory alkalosis at the renal level?

Reducing bicarbonate reabsorption

What is the compensatory mechanism for metabolic alkalosis?

Retaining carbon dioxide

Which equation describes the relationship between pH, bicarbonate concentration, and carbonic acid concentration in the Henderson-Hasselbalch equation?

pH = 6.1 + log ([HCO3 –] / [H2CO3 ])

What is the role of the lungs in regulating the CO2 content of blood?

Removing carbonic acid as CO2

How do respiratory chemoreceptors in the brain respond to changes in CO2 concentration in blood?

By causing increased ventilation if CO2 concentration rises

What is the result of tissue cell metabolism in relation to CO2 production?

Production of CO2

How do the kidneys contribute to acid-base balance?

By eliminating hydrogen ions

What is the function of the Henderson-Hasselbalch equation in relation to pH?

It determines the pH based on bicarbonate and carbonic acid concentrations.

Which of the following is a consequence of blood pH falling below 6.8 or rising above 7.8?

Reduced oxygen delivery to tissues

What is a characteristic of the blood pH in normal cell metabolism?

7.35-7.45

Which term is used in clinical medicine when blood pH is greater than 7.45?

Alkalosis

What is the principal buffer system in blood?

Carbonic acid (H2CO3) and bicarbonate (HCO3 –)

Which of the following is NOT one of the 3 lines of defense for maintaining blood pH according to the text?

Neurological response

What do buffers do in a solution?

Minimize or resist changes in pH

What enzyme is abundant in renal tubule cells and facilitates the formation of carbonic acid from CO2 and H2O?

Carbonic anhydrase

In respiratory acidosis, what is the main cause of the increased partial pressure of carbon dioxide (pCO2)?

Inadequate alveolar ventilation

Which blood test parameter is used to monitor acid-base disturbances along with arterial blood pH and pCO2?

Concentration of bicarbonate (HCO3⁻)

What is the main cause of decreased partial pressure of carbon dioxide (pCO2) in respiratory alkalosis?

Excessive alveolar ventilation

How are hydrogen ions eliminated from the body in urine?

As free ions in urine

Which organ's malfunction can lead to disturbances in acid-base balance according to the provided text?

Lungs

Test your understanding of how buffer systems help minimize changes in pH. Explore concepts like the Henderson-Hasselbalch equation and the role of lungs in maintaining acid-base balance.

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