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The Pituitary Gland, Hypothalamus, and Peptide Hormone Synthesis

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the anterior pituitary is derived from ___ pouch, which is formed from an invagination of the ____.

Rathke's, pharyngeal epithelium

the posterior pituitary is derived from the ____

diencephalon

The anterior lobe of the pituitary is also called the ____ and the posterior lobe of the pituitary is also called ____.

adenohypophysis, neurohypophysis

anterior pituitary blood supply:

(1) origin = superior hypophyseal artery (2) primary capillary plexus = median eminence (4) secondary capillary plexus = Pars Distalis (3) connection between capillary beds = hypophyseal portal vein

Match the following vascular structures with their roles:

Superior pituitary artery = Supplies blood to the anterior pituitary gland Cavernous sinus = Drains venous blood from the pituitary gland Internal carotid artery = Gives rise to the superior pituitary artery Anterior pituitary gland = Receives blood from the superior pituitary artery

Match the following staining techniques with their target structures:

Periodic acid-Schiff (PAS) reaction = Stains glycoproteins in the cytoplasm of anterior pituitary cells Hematoxylin and eosin staining = Highlights different cell types and structures in the anterior pituitary gland Silver impregnation technique = Stains neurosecretory granules in the anterior pituitary cells Anterior pituitary gland = Can be highlighted using various histological staining techniques

Match the cell type with its corresponding hormone secretion:

Somatotrophs = Growth hormone Lactotrophs = Prolactin Thyrotrophs = Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) Melanotrophs = Melanocyte-stimulating hormone (MSH)

Match the function with the hormone produced by the anterior pituitary gland:

Stimulates growth, protein synthesis, and metabolism = Growth hormone Stimulates the mammary glands to produce milk = Prolactin Stimulates the thyroid gland to produce thyroid hormones = Thyroid-stimulating hormone Controls skin pigmentation = Melanocyte-stimulating hormone (MSH)

____ cells appear dark pink or purple in the anterior pituitary. The dark color signifies the cytoplasm is full of its hormone

Chromophil

____ cells within the anterior pituitary are pink in color and include ____ and____.

Acidophils, mammotrophs/lactotrophs, somatotrophs

____ within the anterior pituitary are purple in color and include , ____ and.

Basophils, gonadotrophs, thyrotrophs, corticotrophs

In the anterior pituitary: acidophils will secrete ____ and ____ basophils will secrete ____, ____, ____, and ____

GH, prolactin LH, FSH, ACTH, TSH

What distinguishes acidophils from basophils in the anterior pituitary gland based on their hormone production?

Acidophils produce hormones that regulate growth, while basophils produce hormones involved in stress response.

What are the factors that contribute to the regulation of hormone synthesis?

The availability of hormone precursors, the activity of chromophils, and feedback mechanisms

What is the role of endocrine glands in hormone synthesis?

Maintaining hormonal balance in the body

What is unique about the biosynthesis pathways for different hormones?

They reflect the unique chemical properties of each hormone

Growth hormone and ____ belong to the same gene family

prolactin

Growth hormone is ____ by elevated BG, obesity, and somatostatin (amongst others)

inhibited

Gigantism is caused by ____ hypersecretion during ____

GH, childhood

Acromegaly is caused by ____ hypersecretion in the ____

GH, adult

Release of prolactin is stimulated by ____ and inhibited by ____

TRH, dopamine

____ decreases GnRH, leading to decreased reproductive function and suppressed sexual drive

Prolactin

In individuals with panhypopituitarism, a condition characterized by the underactivity of the entire pituitary gland, which hormone deficiency is most likely to contribute to growth impairment?

Growth hormone (GH)

Which hormone derived from POMC is involved in the regulation of metabolism?

Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)

Which hormone derived from POMC is linked to inflammation and immune response?

Melanocortin-α-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (α-MSH)

Which type of chromophil is used to classify various hormones and peptides in the POMC family?

Pigments that stain purple

Which part of the pituitary gland produces the proteins of the POMC family?

Intermediate lobe

Which family does the Pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) family belong to?

Vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP) superfamily

Which endocrine gland primarily produces the POMC family?

Pituitary gland

How are the hormones and peptides derived from POMC synthesized?

Post-translational processing

What stimulates ACTH synthesis and secretion?

Corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH)

Where do the enzymatic reactions converting the precursor protein into its active forms occur?

Rough endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and Golgi apparatus

Which hormone deficiency is most likely to contribute to growth impairment in individuals with panhypopituitarism?

Growth hormone (GH)

Which term is used to describe the precursor molecules synthesized from DNA that ultimately give rise to biologically active hormones, and specifically, what is the precursor for the hormone pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC)?

Preprohormones; proopiomelanocortin (POMC)

Match the types of feedback using examples of CRH, ACTH, and cortisol

Long loop feedback = CRH --> ACTH --> cortisol --> cortisol inh CRH Short loop feedback = CRH --> ACTH --> ACTH inh CRH Ultra short feedback = CRH inh further CRH general type of feedback = negative

The posterior pituitary is composed of glial-like cells called____ which do not secrete hormones

pituicytes

The hormones secreted by the posterior pituitary are produced by ____ and ____ in the hypothalamus

supraoptic nucleus, paraventricular nucleus

The carrier/binding protein is ____ for oxytocin and ____ for ADH

neurophysin I, neurophysin II

____ are the most common type of pituitary gland tumor

prolactinomas

____ may occur with hyperplasia of the pituitary gland due to compression of the optic chiasm

Loss of peripheral vision

Match the pituitary gland tumor with its effects

prolactinoma = Incr milk production (galactorrhea), decr reproductive function Somatotrophic adenoma = Incr bone/soft tissue growth, acromegaly (adults), gigantism (children) Corticotrophic adenoma = Maybe hyperpigmentation, other Cushing’s Disease symptoms Gonadotrophic adenoma = decr reproductive function

The pituitary gland is the “master gland”, measuring ~1 cm in diameter and is located in the ____

sella turcica

the hypothalamus and pituitary gland are connected by the ____.

infundibulum

Which arteries supply the posterior pituitary?

Middle hypophyseal and inferior hypophyseal

Growth hormone and prolactin both bind to ____ receptors, triggering the ____ signaling pathway

cytokine, JAK/STAT

Insulin-like growth factors (IGFs) activate ____

MAP kinase cascade

____ are produced in the liver and also at local site of action such as bones.

Insulin-like growth factors (IGFs)

Somatomedin C (IGF-I) is the most important IGF

True

Which condition in the adult leads to decreased secretion of all anterior pituitary hormones?

Panhypopituitarism

In the bone, which of the following stimulates chondrocytes and osteoclasts to increase bone elongation?

IGF

In, vascular smooth muscle, ADH leads to contraction via ____ receptor → IP3, DAG → ↑[Ca2+]i

V2

The carrier/binding protein is ____ for oxytocin and ____ for ADH

neurophysin I, neurophysin II

A Gonzalez Block 3 Week 4

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