Altitude Nutrition and Medication Quiz

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188 Questions

What is the primary function of acetazolamide in the context of altitude illness?

To lower the pH of the blood

Why should athletes who are part of an anti-doping program avoid taking acetazolamide?

It is a banned substance according to the World Anti Doping Agency

What is the recommended dosage of acetazolamide for the prevention of acute mountain sickness?

125 mg po bid

What is the primary function of dexamethasone in the prevention of altitude illness?

To reduce the risk of HAPE

How can athletes improve acclimatization to a new time zone?

By adjusting their time-keeping devices to the destination time zone

What is the theoretical risk associated with using sleeping medications while traveling to altitude?

Worsening of night-time oxygenation

How can exercise enhance sleep according to the text?

In the late afternoon or early evening

What should be done to manage jet lag?

Adjust the time-keeping devices after boarding the aircraft

What is the recommended duration of acclimatization for athletes at altitudes up to 2500 m?

14 days

What was found to be effective at inducing ventilatory adaptations and enhancing exercise performance at 4300 m for moderately trained individuals?

Staying at 2200 m for 14 days

Why is the use of natural altitude not always feasible for athletes?

Logistical, geographical, or financial reasons

What has led to the development of devices such as hypoxic tents and hypobaric chambers?

The desire to enhance exercise performance at high altitudes

Where is the cortical representation for the leg located?

Most medially

Which tract is described as the most clinically important pathway in the nervous system?

Lateral corticospinal tract

Where does the lateral corticospinal tract originate mainly?

Primary motor cortex of the brain

At which point does the lateral corticospinal tract cross to the opposite side?

Junction between the medulla and spinal cord

What are the motor neurons projecting from the motor cortex to the spinal cord called?

Corticospinal neurons

Which division of the nervous system controls 'fight-or-flight' functions such as increased heart rate and blood pressure?

Sympathetic division

Where do sympathetic efferents arise from in the spinal cord?

Thoracic and upper lumbar spinal cord

Which descending motor pathway is involved in controlling fine, skilled movements?

Lateral corticospinal tract

What neurotransmitter does the parasympathetic division use as its peripheral neurotransmitter on end organs?

Acetylcholine

What are the additional descending motor pathways organized into, apart from the lateral corticospinal tract?

Motor tracts

What characterizes an upper motor neuron (UMN) lesion?

Muscle weakness with increased reflexes and tone

Which neurotransmitter is most commonly associated with excitatory postsynaptic potentials (EPSP) in the nervous system?

Glutamate

In the nervous system, which fibers connect one hemisphere to an area in the opposite hemisphere?

Commissural fibers

What is the primary function of the tentorium cerebelli in the brain?

Separates the cerebellum from the cerebrum

Which structure serves as a carrying case for the brain, as mentioned in the text?

Dura

Where do ventral nerve roots convey signals from and to in the spinal cord?

From the ventral SC to the periphery

Which division of the nervous system controls 'fight-or-flight' responses such as increased heart rate and blood pressure?

Sympathetic nerves and ganglia

What characterizes a lower motor neuron (LMN) lesion?

Muscle atrophy and fasciculations

Which nerve roots innervate the knee extensors?

L4

What is the characteristic symptom of lower motor neuron (LMN) lesions?

Muscle weakness and loss of strength

What causes foot drop, leading to gait abnormality?

Lack of ankle dorsiflexion in swing

What is the scale used to test muscle strength, ranging from 0 to 5?

Muscle strength scale

Which nerve roots mediate elbow extension?

C5

What is clonus, as per the text?

Sustained clonus

In LMN injury, which type of damage occurs?

Efferent damage

What is the primary cause of muscle atrophy in infants, as per the text?

(Lack of input from motor neuron)

Which type of herniation involves the movement of brain tissue from one intracranial compartment to another?

Transtentorial herniation

In which space does a subarachnoid hematoma occur?

Subarachnoid space

Which feature is characteristic of a subdural hematoma?

Slow due to venomous bleed

What is the primary function of the spinal cord's filum terminale?

To anchor the spinal cord to the coccyx

At which spinal segments does the spinal cord terminate?

L1-L2

Which area of the spinal cord has more gray matter at the cervical and lumbosacral levels than thoracic levels?

Ventral horns

Which structures drain into the dural sinuses and are susceptible to injury leading to a specific type of hematoma?

Bridging veins

Which part of the nervous system is primarily responsible for innervating neck, head, arms, and hands?

Cervical segments

What is the primary function of the corticospinal tract?

Controls distal muscles of hands and feet

Which tract is responsible for unilateral facial weakness affecting the facial nerve?

Corticobulbar tract

Where is the pyramidal decussation located?

Between the medulla and spinal cord

What is the function of the rubrospinal tract?

Facilitates flexor muscle tone

Which cranial nerve is affected in Bell's palsy?

Cranial nerve 7

What are the key symptoms of a lesion in the corticobulbar face and corticospinal pathways originating in the right motor cortex?

Headaches and weakness affecting the left face, arm, leg

What is the function of the medial vestibulospinal tract?

Controls axial muscles like neck and trunk

What are the symptoms associated with upper motor neuron lesions?

Increased muscle tone, hyperactive tendon reflexes, and spastic paralysis

What is the clasp-knife phenomenon associated with?

Increased tone spasticity

Which disorder is often associated with rigidity that is velocity dependent?

Bradykinesia

What does a positive Babinski reflex involve?

Inward flexion of big toes

Where does a lesion need to be for the decerebrate posture to occur?

Below the midbrain

Which gait is typical of unilateral upper motor neuron (UMN) lesions?

Hemiplegic gait

What symptom may lead to altered gait in upper motor neuron (UPN) lesions in the corticospinal tract?

Tremors

Which region is affected by primary lateral sclerosis (PLS)?

Unknown region

Which nerve roots mediate elbow extension?

C7

What is the primary cause of muscle atrophy in infants, as per the text?

Werding Hoff Mann disease

What is the function of the rubrospinal tract?

Facilitates flexion of the upper limb at the elbow and shoulder

What symptom may lead to altered gait in lower motor neuron (LMN) lesions?

Inability to dorsiflex the foot

Where do sympathetic efferents arise from in the spinal cord?

Ventral nerve roots

What characterizes a lower motor neuron (LMN) lesion?

Development of local aspects due to lack of input from the motor neuron

What is clonus, as per the text?

Uncontrolled muscle twitching

Where does a lesion need to be for the decerebrate posture to occur?

Midbrain or upper pons

What distinguishes an upper motor neuron (UMN) lesion from a lower motor neuron (LMN) lesion?

Weakness with increased reflexes and tone

Which neurotransmitter is the most common excitatory postsynaptic potential (EPSP) in the nervous system?

Glutamate

What is the primary function of the corpus callosum?

Connects structures on the right to the left side of the CNS

Where does the tentorium cerebelli separate in the brain?

Cerebellum from cerebrum

What is the primary function of the thalamus in the nervous system?

Important relay center for sensory signals

Which structure mainly carries afferent sensory information in the dorsal spinal cord?

Dorsal roots

What are the characteristics of commissural fibers in the nervous system?

Relay impulses between different areas of CNS in opposite hemispheres

What distinguishes white matter from gray matter in the nervous system?

Gray matter mainly consists of myelinated axons

Which pathway controls movement of the extremities and may produce characteristic deficits?

Corticospinal tract

Where does the pyramidal decussation occur, causing 85% of the fibers to control the opposite side of the body?

Between the medulla and spinal cord

Which tract is responsible for facilitating extensor muscle tone and inhibiting extensor muscle tone?

Rubrospinal tract

Which condition is characterized by facial muscle weakness or paralysis of the 7th cranial nerve?

Bell's palsy

What does a unilateral lesion at the spinal cord level cause in terms of muscle weakness?

Contralateral muscle weakness

Where do upper motor neurons from the motor cortex synapse with lower motor neurons?

Anterior horns of the central gray matter of the spinal cord

Which tract is responsible for modulating reflexes and tone in the spinal levels?

Reticulospinal tract

What symptom is associated with upper motor neuron lesions in the corticospinal tract?

Increased muscle tone (hypertonicity)

What is the clasp-knife phenomenon associated with?

Rigidity

Where does a lesion need to be for the decerebrate posture to occur?

Below the midbrain

What is the characteristic symptom of lower motor neuron (LMN) lesions?

Positive Babinski reflex

What symptom may lead to altered gait in upper motor neuron (UPN) lesions in the corticospinal tract?

Hemiplegic gait

What has led to the development of devices such as hypoxic tents and hypobaric chambers?

Ventilatory adaptations and enhanced exercise performance at high altitudes

What is the theoretical risk associated with using sleeping medications while traveling to altitude?

Disruption of the body's natural acclimatization process

What is the primary cause of muscle atrophy in infants, as per the text?

Degeneration of UMN

Where does a subarachnoid hematoma occur?

Between the dura mater and arachnoid membrane

What is the primary cause of injury for a subdural hematoma?

High acceleration and deceleration causing shearing between layers and tearing of vessels

Which space does a subarachnoid hematoma occur in?

Subarachnoid space

What is the primary function of the filum terminale in the spinal cord?

To hold the spinal cord in place

What characterizes a subfalcine herniation?

Unilateral mass lesion causing brain structures to herniate under the falx cerebri from one side to the other

What causes a slow bleed and crescent shape in a hematoma?

Tearing of bridging veins passing through arachnoid and meningeal layer of dura

What is the primary function of the subarachnoid space?

To transmit cerebrospinal fluid (CSF)

What is characteristic of the white matter in sacral levels of the spinal cord?

Contains mostly descending fibers that have not yet terminated on their targets

Where does a subdural hematoma commonly develop symptoms?

In a different region from where it originated, leading to delayed symptoms

What prophylactic medication has been shown in one study to reduce the incidence of HAPE in susceptible individuals?

Salmeterol

Which prophylactic medication is currently a monitored substance by WADA?

Tadalafil

What type of effect do beta agonists have on exercise performance in healthy athletes based on extensive research?

No effect

Which prophylactic medication does not have convincing evidence of improving exercise performance at altitude?

Tadalafil

Why is there no ideal prophylactic medication recommended for athletes traveling to altitude according to the text?

Lack of efficacy

What is NOT recommended by the text as a counter-measure to decrease exercise-induced immunosuppression?

Taking zinc supplements

From a nutrition perspective, what type of beverages may be helpful according to the text?

Carbohydrate beverages

Which of the following is hypothesized in the text to be protective against UV-induced damage and immunosuppression?

Fish oil

What is recommended for athletes going to high-altitude venues in foreign countries according to the text?

Following travel medicine guidelines for vaccination

What should athletes NOT do to improve acclimatization according to the text?

Using sleeping medications

What is the primary purpose of using supplemental O2 for high-intensity training at altitude?

To enhance acclimatization

What is the main concern athletes should have related to nutrition when at altitude?

Ensuring sufficient fluid intake

In what scenario would the use of intermittent hypoxic strategies be particularly warranted?

In elite athletes with less than 0.5% performance changes

What physiological change occurs in plasma volume on exposure to altitude?

Plasma volume decreases

Why is long-term use of intermittent hypoxic strategies discouraged for most populations?

It may have negative health effects similar to sleep apnea

Which medication shows potential to reduce the incidence of high-altitude pulmonary edema based on the text?

Acetazolamide

What is the primary focus of the study by Siebenmann et al. (2011) based on the text?

High-altitude pulmonary edema prevention

In the context of high-altitude pulmonary edema, what was the outcome of using tadalafil according to the text?

Reduced incidence of edema

Which study evaluated the effects of salmeterol for the prevention of high-altitude pulmonary edema?

Sartori et al. (2002)

What did the trial conducted by Gertsch et al. (2010) compare in relation to altitude headaches?

Acetazolamide vs. ibuprofen

What is the concept introduced in the class notes that refers to the capacity of individuals to act independently and make free choices?

Agency

What term is used to refer to differences in the health of individuals or groups?

Health inequities

Which perspective involves examining how various biological, cultural, and social categories interact to lead to oppression and inequality?

Intersectionality

Referring to the text, what do health inequities specifically denote?

Differences in health based on social groups

In sociology, what is the key debate focused on regarding human behavior?

Agency vs. Structure

What is a key component of health promotion policy mentioned in the text?

Legislation and fiscal measures

How does health promotion aim to influence policy makers?

By fostering greater equity in policies

What type of conditions does health promotion seek to generate according to the text?

Safe, stimulating and satisfying conditions

What is the process of empowerment of communities within their own endeavors and destinies?

Effective community action

How is personal and social development supported in health promotion?

By providing information and education for health

What is the Ottawa charter primarily focused on?

Focusing on health as a resource

What does the text define as the prerequisites for health?

Income, education, and social justice

Why is health promotion not solely the responsibility of the health sector according to the text?

Because individuals need to take control of their health

What does the Ottawa charter propose as a means to reduce health inequities?

Achieving equity in health through action and advocacy

What is highlighted as a key aspect in achieving the best possible health given the context?

A constant negotiation of circumstances towards better health

What does the HP logo's outside red circle represent?

Building Healthy Public Policies

Which key action areas are encompassed by the three wings in the HP logo?

Personal Skills Development, Community Action Strength, Health Policy Building

What does the round spot within the HP logo's circle symbolize?

Basic HP Strategies: Enabling, Mediating, and Advocacy

What do the three wings originating from the inner spot in the HP logo stand for?

Five Key Action Areas of Health Promotion

What is the main function of the Ottawa Charter for Health Promotion logo?

Represent Five Key Action Areas and Three Basic Strategies of Health Promotion

What do the three wings of the Ottawa Charter logo represent?

Key action areas for health promotion

What is the significance of the upper wing breaking the circle in the Ottawa Charter logo?

Constantly changing society and communities

What is NOT a responsibility of the health sector?

Creating supportive environments

Which organizations were 'co-sponsors' of the Ottawa Charter along with the World Health Organization?

Health and Welfare Canada

What was the modification made to the Ottawa Charter logo for the Jakarta Conference in 1997?

Made more open and lively with wings reaching out of the circle

Which nerve provides sensation to the knee?

Obturator nerve

What type of information is carried by bare nerve endings?

Pain and temperature

Which nerve innervates the small toe and lateral foot?

Tibial nerve

What is the primary function of Meissner corpuscles and Merkel receptors?

Provide superficial touch

Which major dermatome corresponds to the top of the shoulder (collarbone)?

C5

Where do large diameter myelinated axons carrying proprioception information enter the spinal cord?

Medial portion of the dorsal root entry zone

What is the primary sensory region innervated by a nerve root?

Skin

'Ruffini endings' primarily provide information related to:

Deep touch and vibration

Where do axons in fasciculus cuneatus synapse?

On nucleus Cuneatus

Which structure is responsible for crossing midline in the caudal medulla?

Internal arcuate fibers

What type of information does the medial lemniscus tract carry?

Vibration, proprioception, fine touch

Where do third order sensory neurons project from after leaving the thalamus?

Somatosensory cortex

What is the function of the fasciculus gracilis and cuneatus?

Carrying upper or lower extremities information

Where do first order neurons decussate after ascending to the caudal medulla?

Internal arcuate fibers

What is the pathway through which vibration, proprioception, and fine touch information is transmitted?

Cervical spinal cord to thalamus

Which structure forms the medial lemniscus tract after decussation at internal arcuate fibers?

Rostral medulla

What is a characteristic feature of a transverse cord lesion?

All sensory and motor pathways are either partially or completely interrupted

In a Brown-Sequard syndrome, what is the characteristic pattern of sensory loss?

Contralateral loss of pain and temperature sensation, ipsilateral loss of vibration and joint position sense

What is a common cause of central cord syndrome?

All of the above

In a hemicord lesion, what is the characteristic motor deficit?

Ipsilateral upper motor neuron (UMN) type weakness

What is a common cause of a transverse cord lesion?

All of the above

In a central cord syndrome, what is the characteristic sensory deficit?

Bilateral loss of pain and temperature sensation

What is a common cause of a Brown-Sequard syndrome?

All of the above

In a transverse cord lesion, what is the relationship between the sensory level and the level of the lesion?

The sensory level is the same as the level of the lesion

What is a characteristic feature of a hemicord lesion?

Ipsilateral loss of vibration and joint position sense, contralateral loss of pain and temperature sensation

What is a characteristic feature of a central cord syndrome?

Bilateral regions of suspended sensory loss to pain and temperature

What is the function of the liver in the digestive system?

To process nutrients absorbed from the small intestine

What happens to the blood flow during exercise?

Blood flow is directed away from the GI tract and towards the working muscles

What is the function of the gallbladder in the digestive system?

To store and concentrate bile

What is the effect of exercise on the GI tract?

It leads to distress, abdominal contractions, and intestinal jarring

What is the primary function of the pancreas in the digestive system?

To secrete digestive enzymes and insulin

What is the length of the small intestine?

About 7 meters

What is the primary cause of gastrointestinal distress during exercise?

Splanchnic vasoconstriction

What is a common symptom of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) in athletes?

Chest pain

What is the recommended dietary approach to manage runner's diarrhea?

Reduce fiber consumption

What is the primary mechanism of NSAID-induced gastrointestinal issues?

Increased risk of upper GI issues

What is the recommended treatment for protozoal diarrhea?

Antiprotozoal medication

What is the primary cause of traveler's diarrhea?

Bacteria

What is the recommended approach to manage foodborne illness during travel?

Boil or peel food

What is the primary symptom of lower GI issues during exercise?

Diarrhea

What is the recommended treatment for bacterial diarrhea?

Antibacterial medication

What is the primary cause of rectal bleeding during exercise?

Lack of blood flow and dehydration

Test your knowledge on nutrition and medication for high altitude visits. Explore the impact of high carbohydrate diets and medications like Acetazolamide on oxygenation and exercise performance at altitude.

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