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BMS 150 Quiz 1 (Week 1)

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19 Questions

Choose the acute phase reactant (protein secreted by the liver during systemic inflammation

CRP (C-reactive protein)

Choose the TRUE statement regrading pattern receptor (PRRs)

NOD-like receptors can sense PAMPs and DAMPs in the cytosol

Which of the following is NOT an antiviral activity that is promoted by a Type-1 interferon?

Increased cytotoxic T-cell proliferation

How is the classical pathway of complement activated?

C1q attaches to an antibody that has bound a pathogen

Choose the TRUE statement regarding the membrane attack complex (MAC)

It requires a complex of C5b, C6, C7, C8, and C9

Which of the following options does NOT cause vasodilation?

CXCL8 (aka IL-8)

Which microbicidal (microbial killing) option is NOT used by macrophages?


When a phagocyte engulfs a bacterium, the bacterium is taken up into a:


Which adhesion molecule is expressed on vascular endothelial cells and is responsible for TIGHT binding of circulating leukocytes during the emigration phase of inflammation?


Innate immune cells recognize pathogens through the use of their:

Pattern recognition receptors (PRR)

Which of the following statement is correct with regards to immunological tolerance?

It is the result of immunological unresponsiveness to self antigens

Which of the following statements is TRUE for memory (aka secondary response) to infection?

All of these statements are true

Choose the FALSE statement below:

Differentiated effector cells that are produces form the division of an activated lymphocyte = paternal cell - will bear receptors with a different specify from that of the parent cell

Which of the following statements is the most correct as it relates to innate immunity?

It occurs rapidly (begins within minutes to hours of infection)

Identify the mismatched items:

Neutrophil : precursor to macrophages

Choose the TRUE statement regarding neutrophils:

Neutrophils are the most numerous white blood cell (WBC) in the blood stream

Identify the mismatch between receptor and ligand:

SR-A : antibodies

Which of the following is NOT a mechanism by which vascular permeability increases during inflammation?

Dilation of pre-capillary sphincters

Which of the following PRRs (pattern recognition receptors) is most likely to bind an intracellular PAMP (pathogen associated molecular pattern)?

Toll-Like Receptor 2

Study Notes

Acute Phase Reactants

  • C-reactive protein (CRP) is an acute phase reactant protein secreted by the liver during systemic inflammation.

Pattern Recognition Receptors (PRRs)

  • PRRs recognize pathogens through specific molecular patterns, such as LPS (lipopolysaccharides) and viral RNA.

Interferons and Antiviral Activity

  • Type-1 interferons promote antiviral activities, but do not induce apoptosis (cell death).

Complement System

  • The classical pathway of complement is activated by antigen-antibody complexes.
  • The membrane attack complex (MAC) is a cytolytic complex that forms a pore in the target cell membrane.

Vasodilation and Inflammation

  • Bradykinin, histamine, and prostacyclin are vasoactive mediators that cause vasodilation, but acetylcholine is not.

Phagocytosis and Microbicidal Mechanisms

  • Macrophages use mechanisms such as oxidative burst, lysosomal enzymes, and nitric oxide to kill microbes, but not autophagy.
  • When a phagocyte engulfs a bacterium, the bacterium is taken up into a phagosome.

Adhesion Molecules and Inflammation

  • ICAM-1 (intercellular adhesion molecule-1) is an adhesion molecule expressed on vascular endothelial cells, responsible for tight binding of circulating leukocytes during the emigration phase of inflammation.

Innate Immunity Recognition

  • Innate immune cells recognize pathogens through the use of pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) that bind to pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs).

Immunological Tolerance

  • Immunological tolerance refers to the state of unresponsiveness to self-antigens, which is necessary to prevent autoimmune diseases.

Adaptive Immunity and Memory Response

  • Memory (secondary) response to infection is characterized by a more rapid and robust immune response compared to the primary response.

Neutrophils and Inflammation

  • Neutrophils are the first line of defense against bacterial infections, responding quickly to inflammatory stimuli.

Mismatched Items and Receptors

  • The mismatched item is the pairing of TLR3 (Toll-like receptor 3) with LPS (lipopolysaccharides), which is incorrect; TLR3 recognizes viral dsRNA.
  • The correct pairing is TLR4 with LPS.

Vascular Permeability and Inflammation

  • Vascular permeability increases during inflammation through mechanisms such as endothelial contraction, increased endothelial permeability, and leukocyte adhesion, but not through decreased blood pressure.

Pattern Recognition Receptors (PRRs) and PAMPs

  • NOD2 (nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-containing protein 2) is a PRR that recognizes intracellular PAMPs, such as muramyl dipeptide.

Test your knowledge by identifying the protein secreted by the liver during systemic inflammation as part of the acute phase response.

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