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Vitamins and Minerals in Human Body

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41 Questions

Which of the following fat-soluble vitamins is NOT stored in the body?

Vitamin K

What is the primary source of energy for neurons and RBCs?

Glucose

What is the primary function of anabolism in cellular metabolism?

Synthesis of large molecules from small ones

What is the primary function of prostaglandins in the body?

Regulation of blood pressure and inflammation

Glucose is catabolized through which three pathways?

Glycolysis, Krebs cycle, and electron transport chain

What is the term for the breakdown of glycogen to glucose?

Glycogenolysis

What is the primary function of minerals in the body?

To work with nutrients to ensure proper body functioning

What is the term for the process by which glucose is converted to glycogen for storage?

Glycogenesis

What is the end result of the complete breakdown of glucose in cellular respiration?

36 ATP, 6H2O, and 6CO2

What is the term for the measurement of the body's energy expenditure at rest?

Basal metabolic rate

What is the net gain of ATP in the process of glycolysis?

2 ATP

Which of the following is NOT a type of lipoprotein?

Polypeptide

What is the purpose of the electron transport chain in cellular respiration?

To generate ATP from NADH and FADH2

What is the term for the process of converting glycogen to glucose in response to low blood glucose levels?

Glycogenolysis

What is the formula for calculating basal metabolic rate (BMR)?

wt (lb) x 705 / ht (inches)^2

What is the primary purpose of glycogenolysis in the body?

To convert glycogen to glucose for energy production

Which of the following is NOT a function of lipids in the body?

Regulating body temperature

What is the main difference between soluble and insoluble fiber?

Soluble fiber reduces blood cholesterol levels, while insoluble fiber provides roughage

What is the primary function of cholesterol in the body?

To stabilize cell membranes

What are the three main ways in which glucose is catabolized in the body?

Glycolysis, the Krebs cycle, and the electron transport chain

What is the primary purpose of oxidative phosphorylation in cellular respiration?

To generate ATP from the energy released during the breakdown of high-energy electrons

How many molecules of pyruvic acid are produced from one glucose molecule through glycolysis?

2

What is the net result of the complete breakdown of glucose in cellular respiration, in terms of ATP production?

36 ATP molecules

What is the net gain of ATP in the Krebs cycle?

1 ATP and 2 NADH + H+

What is the primary function of glycogenolysis in the body?

To break down glycogen to glucose in response to low blood glucose levels

What is the purpose of glycogenesis?

To convert glucose into glycogen for storage

What is the term for the process by which glucose is converted to glycogen for storage?

Glycogenesis

What is the primary function of high-density lipoproteins (HDLs)?

To remove excess cholesterol from peripheral tissues and transport it to the liver

What is the primary function of the electron transport chain in cellular respiration?

To generate ATP from the energy released during the breakdown of high-energy electrons

What is the term for the three interconvertible pools of nutrients?

Nutrient pools

Which of the following is NOT a function of proteins in the body?

Insulation of organs

What is the primary function of soluble fiber in the body?

Reduces blood cholesterol levels

Which of the following lipids are used to absorb fat-soluble vitamins?

Phospholipids

What is the primary function of omega-3 fatty acids in the body?

Essential for brain function

What is the primary source of energy for neurons and RBCs?

Glucose

What is the term for the process of converting glycogen to glucose in response to low blood glucose levels?

Glycogenolysis

Which of the following is a type of lipid?

Triglyceride

What is the primary function of prostaglandins in the body?

All of the above

What is the primary function of adipose tissue in the body?

Protective cushions around body organs

What is the term for the process of converting glucose to glycogen for storage?

Glycogenesis

What is the primary function of cholesterol in the body?

Stabilizes cell membranes

Study Notes

Glycolysis

  • Glycolysis is a catabolic reaction that converts glucose into two molecules of pyruvic acid.
  • It is an anaerobic process that occurs in the cytoplasm.
  • Final products of glycolysis are 2 pyruvic acid, 2 NADH + H+, and a net gain of 2 ATP.
  • If O2 is not readily available, pyruvic acid is converted to lactic acid.
  • If O2 is available, pyruvic acid enters the aerobic pathways.

Krebs Cycle

  • The Krebs cycle occurs in the mitochondrial matrix and does not directly use O2.
  • It utilizes the 2 pyruvic acids from glycolysis.
  • Products from each pyruvic acid are 3 NADH + H+, 1 FADH2, 2 CO2, and 1 ATP.

Electron Transport Chain and Oxidative Phosphorylation

  • This process occurs on the inner mitochondrial membrane and directly uses oxygen.
  • It utilizes the hydrogen atoms from NADH + H+ and FADH2 from glycolysis and Krebs cycle.
  • Products of oxidative phosphorylation are about 28 ATP.

Cellular Respiration

  • Cellular respiration is the process of generating energy from the food we eat.
  • It involves the breakdown of glucose and other nutrients to produce ATP.

Glycogenesis and Glycogenolysis

  • Glycogenesis is the formation of glycogen when glucose supplies exceed the need for ATP synthesis.
  • Glycogenolysis is the breakdown of glycogen to release glucose in response to low blood glucose.

Lipid Metabolism

  • Lipogenesis is the formation of triglycerides (fat) when ATP and glucose levels are high.
  • Lipolysis is the breakdown of triglycerides into glycerol and fatty acids.
  • Triglycerides are routinely oxidized for energy (ATP).
  • Beta oxidation is the breakdown of fatty acids to produce ATP in the mitochondria.

Protein Metabolism

  • When dietary protein is in excess, amino acids are oxidized for energy or converted into fat for storage.
  • There are three interconvertible pools of nutrients: amino acids, carbohydrates, and fats.

Lipoproteins

  • There are four types of lipoproteins: HDLs, LDLs, VLDLs, and chylomicrons.
  • HDLs have the highest protein content and are thought to protect against heart attack.
  • LDLs are cholesterol-rich and high levels increase the risk of heart attack.

Plasma Cholesterol Levels

  • Saturated fatty acids are solid fats that stimulate liver synthesis of cholesterol and inhibit cholesterol excretion.
  • Unsaturated fatty acids are liquid fats that enhance cholesterol excretion.
  • Trans fats are found in processed foods and are more harmful to the heart and blood vessels than saturated fats.

Energy Balance

  • Heat energy is produced by the body and cannot be used to do work.
  • Heat energy warms the tissues and blood, helps maintain homeostatic body temperature, and allows metabolic reactions to occur efficiently.

Obesity

  • Obesity is a condition where the body has an excess amount of fat.
  • Body mass index (BMI) is used to determine whether a person is overweight or obese.
  • Obesity is associated with a higher incidence of atherosclerosis, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, heart disease, and osteoarthritis.

Metabolic Rate

  • Basal metabolic rate (BMR) is the energy required by the body to perform its most essential activities.
  • Thyroxine is the most important hormone affecting BMR.
  • Factors that influence BMR include the ratio of body surface area to volume, age, temperature, and stress.

Regulation of Body Temperature

  • Body temperature is regulated by the balance between heat production and heat loss.
  • At rest, the liver, heart, brain, kidneys, and endocrine organs generate most heat.
  • During exercise, heat production from skeletal muscles increases dramatically.

Homeostatic Imbalance

  • Hyperthermia is a condition where the body temperature is elevated, depressing the hypothalamus.

  • Hypothermia is a condition where the body temperature is low, and vital signs decrease.

  • Fever is a controlled hyperthermia caused by infection, cancer, allergies, or CNS injuries.### Vitamins and Minerals

  • Fat-soluble vitamins A, D, E, and K are absorbed with lipid digestion products and stored in the body, except for vitamin K

  • Vitamins A, C, and E act as antioxidants

  • Minerals are required in moderate amounts, including calcium, phosphorus, potassium, sulfur, sodium, chloride, and magnesium

  • Minerals work with nutrients to ensure proper body functioning

  • Uptake and excretion of minerals must be balanced to prevent toxic overload

  • Examples of minerals and their functions:

    • Calcium, phosphorus, and magnesium salts harden bone
    • Iron is essential for oxygen binding to hemoglobin
    • Iodine is necessary for thyroid hormone synthesis
    • Sodium and chloride are major electrolytes in the blood

Metabolism

  • Metabolism involves biochemical reactions inside cells involving nutrients
  • There are two types of metabolic reactions:
    • Anabolism: synthesis of large molecules from small ones
    • Catabolism: hydrolysis of complex structures to simpler ones
  • Cellular respiration: catabolism of food fuels and capture of energy to form ATP in cells
  • Stages of metabolism:
    1. Digestion, absorption, and transport to tissues
    2. Cellular processing (in cytoplasm): synthesis of lipids, proteins, and glycogen, or catabolism (glycolysis) into intermediates
    3. Oxidative (mitochondrial) breakdown of intermediates into CO2, water, and ATP

Cellular Respiration

  • Oxidation of glucose: C6H12O6 + 6O2 → 6H2O + 6CO2 + 36 ATP + heat
  • Glucose is catabolized in three pathways:
    1. Glycolysis: catabolic reaction based on the conversion of glucose into two molecules of pyruvic acid
    2. Krebs cycle: occurs in the mitochondrial matrix, uses the 2 pyruvic acids from glycolysis
    3. Electron transport chain and oxidative phosphorylation: occurs on the inner mitochondrial membrane, utilizes hydrogen atoms from NADH + H+ and FADH2 from glycolysis and Krebs cycle

Glycolysis

  • Glycolysis is a catabolic reaction that converts glucose into two molecules of pyruvic acid
  • Anaerobic process that occurs in the cytoplasm
  • Final products of glycolysis:
    • 2 pyruvic acid
    • 2 NADH + H+
    • Net gain of 2 ATP
  • If O2 is not readily available, pyruvic acid is converted to lactic acid
  • If O2 is readily available, pyruvic acid enters aerobic pathways

Krebs Cycle

  • The Krebs cycle occurs in the mitochondrial matrix
  • Does not directly use O2
  • Utilizes the 2 pyruvic acids from glycolysis
  • Products of the Krebs cycle:
    • 3 NADH + H+
    • 1 FADH2
    • 2 CO2
    • 1 ATP

Electron Transport Chain and Oxidative Phosphorylation

  • Occurs on the inner mitochondrial membrane
  • Utilizes the hydrogen atoms from NADH + H+ and FADH2 from glycolysis and Krebs cycle
  • Products of oxidative phosphorylation:
    • About 28 ATP

Learn about the importance of fat-soluble vitamins and minerals in the human body. Understand how they are absorbed, stored, and utilized to ensure proper bodily functions. Discover the role of antioxidants and the balance required to prevent toxic overload.

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