Neuropathology 3 - Neurocognitive disorders

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30 Questions

Which of the following is a common feature of neurodegenerative disorders?

What is a common characteristic of protein aggregates in neurodegenerative disorders?

Which neurocognitive disorder is characterized by impairment in activities of daily living (ADLs) and instrumental activities of daily living (IADLs)?

What is a distinguishing feature of instrumental activities of daily living (IADLs)?

What defines early-stage neurocognitive disorder?

Which type of dementia is characterized by the presence of Lewy bodies?

What is a common finding in many neurodegenerative disorders?

Which of the following is true about major neurocognitive disorder?

What is the most common cause of dementia in the elderly?

What are the general pathological findings associated with Alzheimer disease?

What is APP thought to be in the pathophysiology of Alzheimer disease?

Which genetic factors are associated with severe early-onset Alzheimer disease?

"Aggregates of beta-amyloid are directly neurotoxic and also activate microglia and astrocytes, resulting in chronic inflammatory injury to neurons". What is the significance of this statement in the context of Alzheimer disease?

"It is thought that accumulation of beta-amyloid is responsible for neurofibrillary tangles within neurons". What does this statement imply about the relationship between beta-amyloid and neurofibrillary tangles?

Which cognitive functions are primarily orchestrated by the prefrontal cortex?

What is a characteristic feature of Parkinson's disease dementia?

Which cognitive abilities are typically impaired in frontotemporal dementias?

What distinguishes frontotemporal dementias from Alzheimer's disease?

What is a common cause of vascular dementia?

What distinguishes the clinical presentation of vascular dementia from Alzheimer's disease?

What does MMSE assess in terms of cognition?

Which characteristics are typical of frontotemporal dementias?

What is a distinguishing feature of Lewy body dementia compared to frontotemporal dementias?

Which virus can migrate to the central nervous system and remain dormant?

What is the most common disorder of glucose metabolism?

What effect does insulin have on glucose storage and production?

What is a consequence of insulin resistance in Alzheimer's disease pathophysiology?

What effect does long-term hyperglycemia have on insulin resistance?

What is a consequence of insulin resistance linked to elevated levels of free fatty acids?

Which disorder is characterized by slow development of impaired cognition and personality changes?

Summary

Insulin Resistance and Alzheimer's Disease

  • Herpes viruses HSV-1, HHV-6, and HHV-7 can migrate to the central nervous system and remain dormant.
  • In Alzheimer's patients, amyloid accumulation may lead to chronic inflammation instead of fighting viruses.
  • Type II diabetes is the most common disorder of glucose metabolism.
  • Diabetic patients develop resistance to insulin due to genetic and lifestyle factors.
  • Insulin increases glucose storage, decreases new glucose production, and inhibits lipolysis.
  • Insulin resistance is an important component of Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathophysiology.
  • Insulin resistance reduces synaptogenesis and normal neuronal physiology.
  • Insulin resistance increases proinflammatory cytokine levels, leading to glial activation and neuronal damage.
  • Long-term hyperglycemia causes insulin resistance, affecting the blood-brain barrier and causing neuronal damage.
  • Insulin resistance is linked to elevated levels of free fatty acids, causing microglial activation and neuronal damage.
  • Alzheimer's disease is characterized by slow development of impaired cognition and personality changes.
  • Dementia with Lewy bodies is a genetically-determined disorder with Parkinson-like movement symptoms and cognitive fluctuations.

Description

Test your knowledge about the link between viral infections, such as herpes simplex virus (HSV-1), human herpesvirus 6 (HHV-6), and human herpesvirus 7 (HHV-7), and chronic conditions like Alzheimer's disease and type II diabetes.

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