Viral Infections

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29 Questions

Which of the following viruses is a retrovirus?

Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)

Which of the following drugs interrupts viral DNA replication?

Acyclovir (Zovirax)

Which of the following viruses causes fever blisters or cold sores on the lips, mouth, and face?

Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV)

Which drug is used to prevent future viral outbreaks of genital herpes?

Acyclovir

When administering ganciclovir for Cytomegalovirus retinitis, what is the most important consideration?

Assess client's vision after administration

Which drug is used to treat Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV) in children?

Ribavirin

What is the most likely cause of severe upper abdominal pain in a client taking lamivudine?

Pancreatitis

Which symptom may indicate the client is developing lactic acidosis?

B. severe upper abdominal pain

For which delayed hypersensitivity reaction should the nurse educate the client who has been taking efavirenz for about 1 week?

D. Stevens-Johnson syndrome

Which drug is given subcutaneously for treatment of HIV?

C. enfuvirtide

Match the following viruses with their associated conditions:

Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV) = Fever blisters or cold sores on lips, mouth, face Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) = Incorporates viral DNA into host’s Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV) = Viral Hepatitis Cytomegalovirus (CMV) = CMV retinitis

Match the following drugs with their corresponding viruses they treat:

Acyclovir (Zovirax) = Herpes simplex virus (HSV) Ganciclovir (Cytovene) = CMV Valganciclovir (Valcyte) = CMV Efavirenz = HIV

Match the following drugs with their corresponding mechanisms of action:

Acyclovir (Zovirax) = Interrupts viral DNA replication Ganciclovir (Cytovene) = Inhibits viral DNA synthesis Valganciclovir (Valcyte) = Inhibits viral DNA synthesis Efavirenz = Incorporates viral DNA into host’s

Match the following drugs with their correct prototypes:

Ribavirin = RSV in children Oseltamivir phosphate = Influenza in patients > 1 year old Lamivudine = Chronic Hepatitis B, off-label for HIV Zidovudine = HIV, prevents HIV transmission from mother to fetus

Match the following viruses with their correct transmission routes:

Hepatitis A = Fecal-oral route, close contact with infected person Hepatitis B = Contaminated blood, other body fluids Hepatitis C = Mostly same as Hepatitis B HIV = Sex, injection, mother to fetus

Match the following symptoms with the correct conditions or side effects:

Severe upper abdominal pain with guarding = Pancreatitis Muscle aches, pains, fatigue, fever, nausea/vomiting, headache, diarrhea, shivering = Influenza Nasal flaring, signs of respiratory distress = RSV in children Lactic acidosis, hepatomegaly = Side effects of certain HIV drugs

Match the following drugs with their correct mechanisms of action:

Ribavirin = Interferes with DNA and RNA replication Oseltamivir phosphate = Does not allow new viruses to escape cell Lamivudine = Incorporates into the viral DNA and terminates it Zidovudine = Incorporates into viral DNA and terminates

Match the following HIV drugs with their mechanisms of action:

Saquinavir mesylate (Invirase) = Prevents viral maturation Raltegravir (Isentress) = Blocks enzyme HIV integrase, which would normally make more viruses Enfuvirtide (Fuzeon) = Prevents HIV from entering cell Maraviroc (Selzentry) = Prevents HIV from entering cell

Match the following HIV drugs with their nursing considerations:

Saquinavir mesylate (Invirase) = Must monitor for QT prolongation, Take within 2 hours of a meal Raltegravir (Isentress) = Only for strains resistant to multiple antiretroviral drugs Enfuvirtide (Fuzeon) = Given as subcutaneous injection, Must have already received other antiretroviral agents Maraviroc (Selzentry) = Not for patients with low kidney function, May cause hepatotoxicity and/or allergy symptoms

True or false: Viruses are extracellular parasites.

False

True or false: Retroviruses have DNA which must be converted to RNA first.

False

True or false: HIV is a retrovirus.

True

True or false: Acyclovir is prescribed to boost the activity of other drugs.

False

True or false: Ganciclovir should be administered on an empty stomach when treating Cytomegalovirus retinitis.

False

True or false: Ribavirin is a drug used to treat Influenza.

False

True or false: Lamivudine is used to treat Chronic Hepatitis C.

False

Lactic acidosis is a potential symptom of low granulocyte count.

False

Lactic acidosis is a potential symptom of severe upper abdominal pain.

False

The nurse should educate the client taking efavirenz for about 1 week about anaphylaxis as a delayed hypersensitivity reaction.

False

Test your knowledge on viral infections and their pathophysiology. Learn about how viruses function as intracellular parasites and how they incorporate their DNA into the host's cells. Understand the role of retroviruses, such as HIV, and how they can turn cells into "virus factories." Explore the body's defense mechanisms against viral infections, including the production of antibodies. Take the quiz and enhance your understanding of viral infections.

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