Viral Infections and Diseases

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30 Questions

What is the causative agent of shingles?

Human herpesvirus 3 (HHV-3)

What is the name of the disease characterized by macular rash and Koplik's spot?

Rubeola

What is the name of the disease caused by Neisseria gonorrhoeae transmitted to a newborn's eye during passage through the birth canal?

Ophthalmia neonatorum

What is the causative agent of roseola?

Human herpesvirus 6 (HHV-6) and 7 (HHV-7)

What is the term for inflammation of the meninges?

Meningitis

What is the disease caused by Candida albicans?

Thrush

What is the primary mode of transmission of poliomyelitis?

Ingestion of fecally contaminated water

Which bacteria is responsible for causing tetanus?

Clostridium tetani

What is the characteristic symptom of leprosy in its tuberculoid form?

Loss of sensation in skin areas

Which disease is caused by Rhabdoviridae?

Rabies

What is the primary cause of sepsis?

Gram-negative bacteria

What is the outcome of gangrene caused by Clostridium perfringens?

Tissue death from ischemia

What is the typical interval of fever and chills in malaria?

2-3 days

Which disease is caused by the Epstein-Barr virus?

Burkitt's lymphoma

What is the mode of transmission of Schistosomiasis?

Through cercariae that penetrate the skin

What is the causative agent of Chicken pox?

Varicella Zoster virus

What is a characteristic clinical feature of Measles?

Koplik's spot

Which of the following diseases is NOT directly transmitted through airborne pathogens?

Schistosomiasis

What is the primary cause of Mumps?

Paramyxoviridae

Which of the following is a characteristic of Hepatitis B virus?

Most likely to progress to severe liver damage

What is the most common cause of Urinary Tract Infections (UTI) in all settings?

Escherichia coli

What is the term for the presence of a large number of pus cells in the urine?

Pyuria

What is the most common route of Urinary Tract Infection (UTI)?

Ascending UTI

What is the consequence of untreated Urinary Tract Infection (UTI)?

Ascending to the ureters, to renal pelvis and renal parenchyma

Which sexually transmitted disease is characterized by ulcer margins showing epithelial hyperplasia and ulcer bed filled with neutrophil abscess?

Chronic valvular papule/nodule ulceration

What is the common name for the vulvovaginal disease characterized by inflamed, swollen vagina and cervix, speckled with red spots, and producing a frothy, foul-smelling, green-yellow discharge?

Strawberry cervicitis

What is the name of the disease that begins in the vulva or vagina and spreads upwards to involve most of the structures in the female genital system?

Pelvic Inflammatory Disease (PID)

What is the common risk factor for Candidiasis?

Poor hygiene

Which of the following is characterized by multiple, benign, wart-like verrucous lesions on the vuiva, vagina, and cervix?

Condyloma acuminatum

What is the name of the disease caused by Candida albicans, which is characterized by red, white patches on the mucosa (Leukoplakia) and a curdy white discharge?

Candidiasis

Study Notes

Skin Infections

  • Shingles: Reactivation of latent HHV-3 viruses that move along peripheral nerves to skin
  • Herpes Simplex: Caused by HSV-1 and HSV-2, symptoms include cold sores or fever blisters on lips, vesicles on skin, and herpetic whitlow on fingers

Viral Infections

  • Measles: Caused by Rubeola virus, transmitted by respiratory route, symptoms include macular rash and Koplik's spot
  • German Measles: Caused by Rubella virus, symptoms include macular rash and fever
  • Fifth disease: Caused by Human parvovirus B19, symptoms include mild flu-like symptoms and facial rash
  • Roseola: Caused by HHV-6 and HHV-7, symptoms include high fever and rash lasting for 1-2 days

Fungal Infections

  • Orai Thrush: Caused by Candida albicans, infection of mucous membrane

Bacterial Infections

  • Conjunctivitis: Caused by Haemophilus influenzae, symptoms include pinkeye or red eye
  • Ophthalmia neonatorum: Caused by Neisseria gonorrhoeae, transmitted to a newborn's eye during passage through the birth canal
  • Chlamydia trachomatis: Causes trachoma, which is the leading cause of blindness worldwide, symptoms include permanent scarring and abrading of the cornea

Diseases of the Nervous System

  • Meningitis: Inflammation of the meninges caused by Hemophilus influenzae, Streptococcus pneumoniae, and Neisseria meningitidis, symptoms include fever, headache, and stiff neck
  • Encephalitis: Inflammation of the brain, symptoms include chronic valvular papule/nodule ulceration

Sexually Transmitted Diseases

  • Condyloma acuminatum: Multiple, benign, wart-like verrucous STD found on vuiva, vagina, and cervix
  • Candidiasis: Caused by C. albicans, symptoms include grossly found red, white patches on mucosa, curdy white discharge, and risk factors include poor hygiene, high dose of OCP, pregnancy, obesity, and immunosuppression
  • Trichomonas vaginalis: Symptoms include inflamed, swollen vagina and cervix, specked with red spots, bleeding easily on touch, and producing frothy, foul-smelling, green-yellow discharge and dyspareunia

Diseases of the Musculoskeletal System

  • Tetanus: Caused by Clostridium tetani, symptoms include lockjaw, a characteristic condition of opisthotonos
  • Botulism: Caused by Clostridium botulinum, symptoms include flaccid paralysis, caused by ingesting botulinal toxin

Diseases of the Cardiovascular and Lymphatic System

  • Sepsis: Inflammation of the body caused by gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria, symptoms include RBC lysis, release of iron-containing hemoglobin, and accelerated microbial growth
  • Rheumatic fever: Caused by Group A beta-hemolytic, symptoms include arthritis, fever, damage to heart valves, and inflammation of the heart
  • Gangrene: Caused by Clostridium perfringens, symptoms include tissue death from ischemia at infection site
  • Lyme disease: Caused by Borrelia burgdorferi, symptoms include bull's eye rash and neurologic symptoms

Diseases of the Respiratory System

  • Chicken pox: Caused by Varicella Zoster virus, transmitted by droplet infection, symptoms include fever, appearance of rash in the form of crops on the trunk, face, and limbs
  • Measles: Caused by Rubeola virus, symptoms include nasal catarrh, sneezing, redness of the eyes, short cough, hoarseness of voice, and Koplik's spot
  • Mumps: Caused by Paramyxoviridae, symptoms include inflammation of the parotid glands, fever, and pain during swallowing

Diseases of the Gastrointestinal System

  • Hepatitis A virus: Caused by Picornaviridae, symptoms include fever, headache, malaise, jaundice in severe cases, and usually transmitted by ingestion
  • Hepatitis B virus: Caused by Hepadnaviridae, symptoms include fever, headache, malaise, jaundice in severe cases, and transmitted parenterally, blood transfusion, syringes, saliva, sweat, breast milk, and sexual contact
  • Amoebiasis: Caused by Entamoeba histolytica, symptoms include lysing of epithelial cells and abscesses

Diseases of the Urinary Tract

  • Cystitis: Symptoms include dysuria, frequency, urgency, suprapubic pain, and hematuria
  • Pyelonephritis: Symptoms include fever, flank pain, chills, nausea, and vomiting
  • Urosepsis: Symptoms include fever, flank pain, chills, nausea, vomiting, and shock
  • Urethritis: Symptoms include discharge, itching, dysuria, frequency, and suspect STDs
  • Ascending UTI: Most common route, most common in women due to short and wide urethra and proximity to perineum
  • Escherichia coli: Most common cause of UTI in all settings

Test your knowledge on different types of viral infections, including herpes, measles, and German measles. Learn about their symptoms, modes of transmission, and effects on the human body.

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