Test 1 Guide (PPT Only)

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174 Questions

What is the main point of the personal journey shared in the text?

The unpredictability of research outcomes

Why does the author mention that basic lab research sometimes gets a bad rap?

To explain the misunderstanding about its purpose

What is emphasized as the beauty of starting down a research pathway?

The ability to do more important research later on

What is highlighted as an important part of building a foundation of research knowledge and skills?

Sharing findings with other scientists and colleagues

What is the purpose of the albumin values mentioned in the text?

To measure the protein levels in the lung tissue of mice

What did the albumin values show about the experimental group of mice?

They exhibited a significant increase in lung protein levels compared to the control group

What was the main purpose of sharing the research findings in a journal?

To inform colleagues about protein concentration elevations in mouse lungs

How did basic science research inform clinical decision making at the Spinal Cord Injury Center?

By prompting the use of Trindenburg positioning to improve lung function

What was the purpose of the Getaway Special module in the space shuttle?

To carry cargo up into near-Earth orbit

Why did the professor want the students to study the effects of sudden rocket acceleration?

To understand the changes in physiology and anatomy

What was the purpose of subjecting the mice to acceleration?

To study the effects of acceleration on lung pathology

What was the result of launching the mice as part of the experiment?

High levels of albumin were detected in the fluid from the lungs of launched mice

Why was there a no launch group included in the experiment?

To observe any stress response in mice placed into the rocket

What did the high levels of albumin detected in the launched mice suggest?

Some level of lung pathology after acceleration

What was the role of the sham launch group in the experiment?

To act as a control group for comparison

What was found when comparing the sham launch group with the no launch control group?

They had identical albumin levels

What was unique about the rocket used in the experiment?

It had a transparent payload section for mice

What was the main purpose of developing a small launch site near the USF Baseball Stadium?

To have a place for launching mice-carrying rockets

What did the experiment aim to determine by accelerating mice?

Whether there would be changes in alveolar capillary membrane anatomy

What type of study is a case study considered to be?

Observational study

In a case study, how do clinicians typically refer to it?

N of 1 study

What distinguishes a case study from studies involving statistical analysis?

Lack of control group and experimental group

What is the key focus of a case study?

Telling a unique medical story

What is the reason for placing the patient on a mechanical ventilator at night?

To prevent the decline in diaphragmatic function during sleep

What is the primary reason for using spring-loaded valves in the patient's strength training?

To strengthen the diaphragm

Why does the patient use a trach cap with the cuff deflated during the day?

To reduce the need for diaphragmatic pacing

What allows the patient to spend most of the day off the mechanical ventilator?

The presence of olfactory sheathing cells

What is the purpose of stopping the diaphragmatic pacer and placing the patient on a mechanical ventilator overnight?

To allow rest and recuperation of the diaphragm

What is the main focus of the rehabilitation institute developed by the patient and his wife?

To offer spinal cord injury recovery services

What is the purpose of the diaphragmatic pacer mentioned in the text?

To ventilate the lungs by shooting electrical discharges into the diaphragm

Who is responsible for setting the rate, tidal volume, and other settings of the diaphragmatic pacer?

The registered respiratory therapist

Where are the olfactory sheathing cells obtained from for the experimental procedure developed by Dr. Carlos Lima in Portugal?

Cribriform plate

What happens when the diaphragmatic pacer shoots electrical impulses into the diaphragm?

The lungs expand and contract

What is the significance of mapping motor points on the underside of the diaphragm during surgery?

To identify areas where electrical impulses can be shot to stimulate the diaphragm

Why was the patient transported to Portugal for the experimental procedure developed by Dr. Carlos Lima?

Lack of authority for experimental procedures in the United States

What is the role of a registered respiratory therapist in managing a patient on a diaphragmatic pacer?

Setting and managing pacer settings

How does a diaphragmatic pacer differ from a ventilator?

A ventilator provides external support for breathing, while a pacer stimulates internal muscle movement

What is significant about using carbon dioxide gas during surgery for implanting a diaphragmatic pacer?

It aids in separating the diaphragm from other organs in the abdominal cavity

What is crucial for placing olfactory sheathing cells from the cribriform plate directly into the area of spinal cord damage?

Placing them on nerves near spinal cord damage

What is emphasized as an important responsibility of a registered respiratory therapist in relation to a patient on a diaphragmatic pacer?

Adjusting and managing pacer settings for patients

What is the purpose of obtaining IRB approval?

To ensure the patient's consent is obtained before proceeding with the collection process

Where did the service member receive neuro respiratory rehabilitation after arriving in the United States?

Tampa VA Hospital

What injury did the service member sustain as a result of a bullet wound?

C3 Asia A injury

What intervention was performed on the service member as the battle was continuing?

Emergency tracheotomy

In which country did the service member sustain the combat-related injury?

Iraq

What was the approximate angle at which the bullet came in?

$45^\circ$

What is the role of a case series in medical research?

To refer to multiple case studies together

What does a C3 Asia A injury indicate?

Complete spinal cord injury

What is the significance of obtaining consent from the patient?

To proceed with collection process after obtaining IRB approval

Where did the case study of the 30-year-old Hispanic male special forces operative take place?

Summit conference in Jacksonville

What was done to stabilize the patient during phase one neuro rehabilitation rehab?

Placement on mechanical ventilator

Where were service members generally taken to if they cannot be stabilized in theater?

Landstuhl Medical Center in Germany

What is the purpose of the abdominal binder mentioned in the text?

To assist in maintaining a domed diaphragm

Why are slow twitch muscle fibers important in the diaphragm?

Because they resist fatigue and have high oxygen supply

What is the main advantage of 21st century diaphragmatic pacing over 20th century diaphragmatic pacing?

It requires less invasive surgery

What percentage of the diaphragm is functional in a C3 complete injury?

25%

How do fast twitch muscle fibers in the diaphragm differ from slow twitch fibers?

They have low capillary supply

What surgical technique is used for 21st century diaphragmatic pacing?

Laparoscopic surgery

What does a predominance of slow twitch fibers in the diaphragm allow?

Fatigue resistance for prolonged breathing

Why is it difficult to ventilate with a C3 complete injury?

As only 25% of the diaphragm is functional

What does the abdominal binder help to prevent?

Autonomic dysreflexic episodes

What do slow twitch fibers in the diaphragm have a high resistance to?

Fatigue

What advantage does laparoscopic surgery offer for diaphragmatic pacing?

It requires minimal recovery time

What is the primary reason for transplanting olfactory sheathing cells into the spinal cord?

To support the physiological function of neurons

What is the objective of placing the patient on the Erigo machine?

To improve sensory function

What is the main purpose of using the NM3 monitor during rehabilitative sessions?

To monitor physiological variables

What is the function of the spring-loaded valves used for inspiratory and expiratory resistance strength training?

Equivalent to exercising biceps at the gymnasium

Why are olfactory sheathing cells minced up before being transplanted into the spinal cord?

To facilitate their transplantation and growth in the spinal cord

What is the role of astrocytes in relation to neurons?

Providing both physical and physiological support to neurons

What is the primary role of the dura mater in the surgical procedure described?

To provide access to the spinal cord tissue

Why does the patient need to consciously push during therapy sessions in front of a mirror?

To improve sensory function after stem cell implantation

What is the main purpose of using a sling to transport the patient from wheelchair onto a mat?

To improve sensory function after stem cell implantation

What is emphasized as being equivalent to exercising biceps at the gymnasium?

Use of spring-loaded valves for inspiratory and expiratory resistance strength training

What is the primary role of glial stem cells when transplanted into the spinal cord?

To provide physiological support for neurons and help them grow

What is the main objective of using a dynamic tilt table or robotic walking machine during rehabilitation?

Improving motor and sensory function after stem cell implantation

What is the primary focus of the educational research study mentioned in the text?

Improving educational practice and learning outcomes for students

How does SPSS, as mentioned in the text, aid in educational research?

By helping in data analysis for understanding perspectives and educational practice

What is the role of the research practicum in relation to sophomores, as mentioned in the text?

Helping them learn research knowledge and skills

Why is the article on respiratory therapy considered important according to the text?

It is the result of a natural experiment and focuses on improving educational practice

What was the purpose of the partnership established in 2017 between the Department of Respiratory Therapy and the HCC Foundation?

To conduct in-hospital clinical research practicum

What role do students play in clinical research according to the text?

They assist in using the NM3 monitor to measure physiologic variables of patients on a mechanical ventilator

What is the main focus of the clinical research practicum mentioned in the text?

To provide students with clinical research knowledge and skills

What is the purpose of using the statistical package for the social sciences (SPSS) mentioned in the text?

To graphically demonstrate changes that occur over time

What does the data view of the statistical package for the social sciences (SPSS) display according to the text?

Variables associated with data captured regarding students' performance

What is one important use of the information gleaned from research by educators as mentioned in the text?

To impart knowledge to students based on the information gleaned from research

What is one significant aspect of laparoscopic surgery mentioned in relation to diaphragmatic pacing?

It offers a less invasive surgical technique for diaphragmatic pacing

In what way does clinical educators' use of research differ from that of clinical researchers according to the text?

Clinical educators use research to improve learning outcomes of students

What is emphasized as an important responsibility of a registered respiratory therapist in relation to a patient on a diaphragmatic pacer?

Obtaining consent from the patient before any procedures

What is one important aspect of astrocytes mentioned in relation to neurons?

Improvement in students' skills based upon the research

What is one significant aspect of using carbon dioxide gas during surgery for implanting a diaphragmatic pacer?

Improvement in students' skills based upon the research

What was emphasized as an important part of building a foundation of research knowledge and skills?

Assisting in using the NM3 monitor to measure physiologic variables

What type of statistical test is recommended when comparing the mean of three or more groups?

Analysis of variance

What information is needed to perform a t-test?

Mean and standard deviation

What does a p-value of less than 0.001 indicate?

The result is statistically significant

When should an analysis of variance be used instead of a t-test?

When there are three or more groups to compare

What do the descriptive statistics for the various classes include?

Mean and standard deviation

What is the main purpose of providing a graphical representation of the data using a statistical package like SPSS?

To visually compare different classes or groups

What does it indicate if the improvement in pre-prep quizzes for different classes appears virtually standing still over time?

There is minimal change in performance over time

What do the post CRP research skill scores for different sophomore classes reveal?

A statistically significant difference between on-site and online groups

Why has an analysis of variance been conducted for the research skill scores?

'Stark disparity' between on-site and online groups observed in post CRP research skill scores

What has been done in an effort to address the statistically significant difference between on-site and online group skill levels?

Made changes in the educational program and clinical research practicum

What is the significance of establishing a dialogue with other programs that have had similar issues?

Learning from other programs and instituting changes based on shared experiences

What is the primary focus of the NM3 device in clinical research?

Estimating six cardiopulmonary parameters based on scientific evidence

Why is volumetric capnography considered better than end-tidal CO2 monitoring?

It enables physiologic monitoring with a flow signal

What does carbon dioxide elimination provide continuous feedback about?

The condition of the lungs and heart

What is the significance of using the NM3 device for real-time monitoring?

No lag time in obtaining information

What gas is traditionally used as a tracer gas in the Fick equation to measure cardiac output?

Oxygen

In the modified Fick equation, what gas is used as a tracer gas instead of oxygen to measure cardiac output?

Carbon dioxide

What is the preferred tracer gas used by the NM3 to derive a cardiac output measurement?

Carbon dioxide

What protocol/data sheet is used at the bedside to record cardiac output measurements?

Protocol C

What statistical method is used to determine if there has been a change in terms of cardiac output and other cardiopulmonary variables on the part of the patient?

T-test

What is used to find out what the standard deviation is for the cardiac output measurements?

Excel spreadsheet

What are the three physiologic functions involved in the removal of carbon dioxide from the body, as mentioned in the text?

Circulation, alveolar diffusion, ventilation

What does a decrease in circulation cause, as indicated in the text?

More carbon dioxide at the tissue site and less carbon dioxide evolved at the lungs

What is crucial for evolving carbon dioxide from the body out into the atmosphere?

Alveolar diffusion

What will be observed during phase two of the volumetric capnogram tracing?

An uptick in carbon dioxide

What does volumetric capnography monitor in addition to N-tidal CO2?

Flow

What is breath-by-breath integration of N-tidal CO2 and flow used to calculate in volumetric capnography?

Carbon dioxide elimination

What is the central focus of using volumetric capnography in measuring carbon dioxide elimination from the body?

Measuring dead space ventilation

What is a key indicator of circulatory or ventilatory changes occurring in a negative direction, according to the text?

More N-tidal CO2

What information can be derived by integrating flow with N-tidal CO2?

The amount of carbon dioxide being removed from the body

What is the function of the capnostat sensor in the NM3 device?

To sense carbon dioxide and work with a differential pneumatic to provide waveforms

What is a key advantage of using volumetric capnography as described in the text?

Measuring static chest compliance

What is the purpose of the rebreathing valve controlled by the computer in the NM3 device?

To redirect gas from the patient into a loop of the corrugated circuit

What physiological variables can be estimated by integrating carbon dioxide and flow using the capnostat and differential pneumatic?

Carbon dioxide elimination and cardiac output

What is a key advantage of measuring cardiac output using the NM3 device?

Noninvasive measurement compared to invasive thermal dilution

What is the role of the CO2 flow sensor in the NM3 device?

To sense carbon dioxide and work with a differential pneumatic to provide waveforms

What is one function of the Trilogy mechanical ventilator in conjunction with the NM3 device?

To provide gas that goes past the heat and moisture exchanger before entering a lung

What can be inferred from using an analog lung in conjunction with the NM3 device?

The patient's ability to spend most of the day off the mechanical ventilator

What physiological variables can be monitored using capnography as described in the text?

End-tidal CO2 and respiratory rate

What is indicated by using spring-loaded valves in strength training for the patient?

Measuring physiological variables associated with diaphragmatic pacing

Why was it historically challenging to measure cardiac output noninvasively before using devices like NM3?

Reliance on invasive methods like thermal dilution with swan-Ganz catheters

What is the main focus of unit 3.5, NRC and PFTs for rural ALS patients?

Explaining the research role of RRTs in responding to the PFT NRC needs of ALS patients in rural areas

What is the Cochrane Library known for?

Providing informed decisions based on the best available scientific evidence

Why is becoming conversant with the best available scientific evidence important for providing patient care?

To provide the best available care for patients

What is the role of transdisciplinary teams in delivering chronic clinically complex care?

Improving the effectiveness of care by bringing together diverse expertise

What was the main benefit of impulse oscillometry over spirometry for identifying airway resistance?

It required less physical effort from the patient

What was the publication where the benefits of impulse oscillometry in early detection of respiratory impairment were reported?

Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine

What was the primary outcome of adopting impulse oscillometry for clinical surveillance?

Improved detection of respiratory changes

What was the impact of the introduction of the transdisciplinary model of care in 2011?

Increase in patient survival rate

What was the main reason for the delay in baseline spirometry to subsequent spirometry for patients in rural areas?

Difficulty in traveling to the hospital due to physical impairment

What was recommended by the transdisciplinary team to address the challenge faced by patients in rural areas?

Having respiratory therapists perform tests and deliver care in patients' homes

What was the change observed in the average survival of patients with ALS after the adoption of the transdisciplinary model of care?

Increased from 1.8 years to 2.7 years

What was revealed by Dr. Halamine's retrospective chart review conducted on patients in rural sections of the catchment area?

Patients were being underdiagnosed and undertreated

What was recommended by the transdisciplinary team to address the delayed baseline spirometry to subsequent spirometry for patients in rural areas?

Having registered respiratory therapists perform spirometry tests in patients' homes

What was the impact of the introduction of the transdisciplinary model of care on patient survival after four years?

Increased from 2.7 years to 5.1 years

How did the survival rate of ALS patients change after the introduction of the transdisciplinary model of care?

Increased dramatically

What was identified as a significant challenge for ALS patients in rural areas when traveling to the hospital?

'Increasing physical impairment making travel very challenging'

What is depicted by the large rectangles to the right of the graph showing patient data from fiscal year 2010 onwards?

Introduction of transdisciplinary model of care

The number of patients began escalating around which fiscal year?

2010

What was observed regarding the death rate and survival rate as fiscal year 2010 approached?

Increased death rate and decreased survival rate

What is the primary characteristic of a transdisciplinary team?

The patient is at the center of the team

What is the key difference between a multidisciplinary/interdisciplinary team and a transdisciplinary team?

The physician is at the center in a multidisciplinary/interdisciplinary team, while the patient is at the center in a transdisciplinary team

What is the term used to describe when a specific clinician releases a part of their role to another practitioner?

Role release

What does role release aim to achieve in patient care?

Increase efficiency in delivering patient care

What did the reorganization into a transdisciplinary team change about the level of responsiveness to patients' needs?

Heightened responsiveness

What did the author learn about patient care while delving into the Cochran Library?

The need to reorganize into a transdisciplinary team

What was lacking in the clinical behavior of the previous multidisciplinary/interdisciplinary team?

Sharing among providers from provider to provider

What was an important addition in the diagram of the transdisciplinary team compared to the previous model?

Involvement of patients and their caregivers

What do transdisciplinary teams identify in patients, according to Carol and his group?

Complex issues that patients have

What does role release aim to achieve in patient care?

Increase efficiency in delivering patient care

What is an important aspect of a transdisciplinary collaboration?

Involving all team members in addressing specific issues together

What is an important addition in the diagram of the transdisciplinary team compared to the previous model?

Involvement of patients and their caregivers

What was the initial problem faced by clinicians in the pulmonary function testing laboratory?

It was difficult to determine if patients' tiredness was due to pathology or fatigue from traveling to the hospital

What was the purpose of receiving a grant from the Department of Defense?

To develop a prototype for in-home pulmonary function testing

What was the outcome of using a composite bar as a prototype for in-home pulmonary function testing?

It failed to work successfully

What was the engineer's suggestion to improve the prototype for in-home pulmonary function testing?

To use a tripod and marry the equipment from CareFusion to it

What was a key consideration in conducting field trials with the ALS/PFT/NRC mobile laboratory?

Planning how to transport equipment to and from patient homes

What role did assistive technologists play in collaboration with the researchers?

Designing an iPad with respiratory therapy icons for patient use

Why did researchers need to develop a prototype that could be easily brought to the home of rural-based patients?

To conduct in-home pulmonary function tests on patients with limited mobility

What type of solution did researchers aim for when designing prototypes for in-home pulmonary function testing?

A versatile and workable solution

What was achieved by collaborating with vendor technicians, computer programmers, biomedical engineers, and RRTs at the VA research institute?

Successful repurposing of existing equipment for in-home use

What was a significant outcome of changing from a multidisciplinary to a transdisciplinary model of care?

Quick collaboration, quick thinking, and quick problem-solving approach

What enabled patients to stay on top of their appointments and therapeutic interventions?

Development of an iPad with respiratory therapy icons

Explore the uncertainties and possibilities of a research journey through personal experiences. Understand the potential for initial research efforts to lead to significant future opportunities in the field.

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