Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: Pathogenesis and Mechanisms

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16 Questions

Which of the following is NOT a mechanism of insulin resistance in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus?

High levels of adiponectin

What is the main pathological process that leads to the development of hyperglycemia in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus?

Insulin resistance followed by insulinopenia

What is the primary cause of beta cell apoptosis in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus?

Glucotoxicity from hyperglycemia

In Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus, what happens to beta cell function over time?

Beta cell function deteriorates due to apoptosis and lipotoxicity

What is the role of incretins in the regulation of insulin secretion?

Enhance insulin secretion in a glucose-dependent manner

Which factor contributes to beta cell failure in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus by inducing apoptosis?

Elevated free fatty acids (FFAs)

What is the primary cause of beta cell loss in Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus?

Autoimmune destruction

Which human leukocyte antigen (HLA) accounts for 60% of the risk for Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus?

HLA DR3

Which of the following viruses is NOT associated with the development of Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus?

Influenza virus

What is the main genetic factor contributing to the risk of developing Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus?

CTLA4 gene

What is the characteristic feature of the prediabetic stage of Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus?

Insulitis

Which factor plays a protective role against the development of Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus?

HLA DQB1-0602

What is the role of viruses in the pathogenesis of Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus?

Trigger T-cell mediated autoimmune response

Which of the following HLA types is considered a major risk factor for Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus?

DR3

What is the main role of autoantibodies in Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus?

Destroy beta cells

What do pathological changes in the prediabetic stage of Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus primarily involve?

T-cell infiltration.

Explore the pathogenesis of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus, from insulin resistance to the development of hyperglycemia and insulinopenia. Delve into the mechanisms behind insulin resistance in T2DM, including obesity-related adipocytokines, subclinical inflammation, oxidative stress, glucotoxicity, and lipotoxicity.

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