Toxicology: Absorption of Chemicals

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23 Questions

What is the primary focus of basic research/mechanistic toxicologists?

Understanding how chemicals initiate biochemical changes leading to toxicity

In toxicology, what is the purpose of identifying important metabolites of a chemical?

To analyze how the body breaks down and eliminates the chemical

What is the goal of mechanistic studies in toxicology?

To understand specific biological reactions leading to toxicity

At what levels can mechanistic studies in toxicology be performed?

Molecular, biochemical, cellular, or tissue levels

What is the role of mechanistic toxicologists in understanding toxicity?

Identifying critical biological processes that lead to toxicity

What type of interaction is observed between chlorinated insecticides and halogenated solvents on the central nervous system when they are present together?

Antagonistic

Which combination of chemicals can produce liver toxicity with an additive interaction?

Chlorinated insecticides and halogenated solvents

What effect does simultaneous exposure to chlorinated insecticides and halogenated solvents have on the central nervous system?

None of the above

Which term describes the time scale for chronic effects of exposure to toxic substances?

Subacute

What are the short-term consequences of exposure to toxic substances called?

Acute effects

What type of interaction is observed between chlorinated insecticides and halogenated solvents on the liver when they are used together?

Additive

Which enzyme is inhibited by organophosphate and carbamate pesticides, leading to the accumulation of acetylcholine at neuromuscular transmission sites?

Acetylcholine esterase

What specific lung damage can occur due to paraquat poisoning?

Pulmonary fibrosis

Which toxic gas can cause damage to the cardiovascular system by inducing arrhythmias?

Hydrogen cyanide

What specific effect can exposure to organophosphate insecticides have on synaptic transmission?

Inhibition of acetylcholinesterase

Which of the following is NOT a sensitizer that can provoke an immune response resulting in asthma and allergic dermatitis?

Vinyl chloride

'Vinyl chloride causes hepatic hemangiosarcoma' indicates that vinyl chloride is a:

Genotoxic carcinogen

What is the mechanism through which carbon monoxide affects the body?

It reacts with hemoglobin to form COHb, which cannot carry oxygen

How does hydrogen sulfide's odor change with concentration?

It remains odorless regardless of concentration

What is the common effect of carbon monoxide, hydrogen cyanide, and hydrogen sulfide on the human body?

Interfering with oxygen transport

How do 'heavy' metals like lead, cadmium, and mercury affect the human body?

By poisoning cytochromes and specific organs

What is the primary reason why hydrogen cyanide is used in industries?

To form odorless compounds for industrial purposes

How do hydrogen sulfide and carbon monoxide differ in terms of their initial detection?

Hydrogen sulfide is odorless while carbon monoxide has a faint smell

Learn about how different chemicals are absorbed into the body at varying rates and extents. Explore examples such as ethanol and organic mercury to understand absorption mechanisms in toxicology.

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