Immune Responses

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During the primary immune response, what is the first antibody detected in circulation?

IgM

Where does clonal diversity take place?

Thymus

Which cells predominate in early inflammatory responses and ingest bacteria, dead cells, and cellular debris?

Neutrophils

What is the primary role of monocytes and macrophages in the immune response?

Phagocytosis of bacteria

What is the function of T regulatory cells (Tregs) in the immune response?

Regulate the immune response to avoid attacking self

Where do memory T cells reside after being produced?

Secondary lymphoid tissue

What is the role of dendritic cells, macrophages, and B lymphocytes as antigen-processing cells (APCs)?

Process and present antigens to naive lymphocytes

What initiates clonal selection in the immune response?

T and B cells interacting with an antigen

Continues to some degree throughout life

Which type of cells are formed in the blood and act as tissue phagocytic cells?

Macrophages

What is the group of glycoproteins that kill viruses and activate macrophages called?

Interferons

What is the natural antibiotic against bacteria that is produced by macrophages and neutrophils?

Lysozyme

Which fatty acids may be released by damaged cells?

Prostaglandins and leukotrienes

What serum protein stimulates vascular dilation and permeability?

Kinins

Which enzyme precursors undergo cascading chain reaction conversions when activated?

Complement

What is the general term to signify a protein hormone that affects the function of cells lying near the cell of origin?

Cytokine

Which natural barriers are composed of tightly associated epithelial cells?

Skin and mucous membranes

What are the small molecular weight particles secreted by epithelial cells known as?

Antimicrobial peptides

Which types of granulocytes have visible granules and play a role in the immune response?

Basophils

What is the primary role of MHC I?

Present foreign antigens to cytotoxic T cells

What is the main function of IgE?

Provide protection from large parasites

What is the purpose of adaptive (acquired) immunity?

Induce production of antibodies or T cells

Which cell type is responsible for cell-mediated immunity?

T lymphocytes

What is the main characteristic of superantigens (SAGs)?

Activates a large population of T-lymphocytes regardless of antigen specificity

Which antibody class is primarily found in body secretions and dominates the mucosal immune system?

IgA

What is the main function of B lymphocytes?

Produce immunoglobulins (antibodies) by activating B cells and creating plasma cells

What is the primary role of Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC) II?

Present foreign antigens to T helper cells

What are the components of adaptive (acquired) immunity?

Both B lymphocytes and T lymphocytes

What is the main purpose of nonspecific inflammatory response?

Prevent and limit infection and further damage

Which system forms a fibrinous meshwork at an injured or inflamed site?

Coagulation (clotting) system

What is the primary function of the kinin system?

Activating and assisting inflammatory cells

Which plasma protein system can destroy pathogens directly and activates or collaborates with every other component of the inflammatory response?

Complement system

What are mast cells cellular bags of, located in loose connective tissues close to blood vessels?

Histamine and chemotaxic factor

What is the main effect of histamine on blood vessels?

Dilation of large blood vessels

What is the main substance of the coagulation (clotting) system's fibrinous meshwork at an injured or inflamed site?

Fibrin

Which plasma protein system functions to keep microorganisms and foreign bodies at the site of greatest inflammatory cell activity?

Coagulation (clotting) system

What causes dilation of blood vessels, pain, smooth muscle contraction, vascular permeability, and leukocyte chemotaxis?

Prostaglandins

What function does platelet-activating factor serve in relation to endothelial cells?

Inducing endothelial cell retraction to increase vascular permeability

Where is the H1 receptor, which is involved in inducing bronchoconstriction when stimulated, located?

Smooth muscle cells in the bronchi

Test your knowledge of T cell responses and immune memory with this quiz. Explore the concepts of primary and secondary immune responses, as well as the role of memory T cells and T regulatory cells in regulating the immune system.

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