Summary of Organic Molecules in the Human Body

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Which type of carbohydrate is used by plants to store energy?

Starch

What is the main function of cellulose in the diet of humans?

Adds bulk to food and aids digestion

Which type of molecule is denatured when exposed to extreme pH or high temperature?

Proteins

What is the primary structure of a protein?

Order of amino acids

Which lipid type acts as a protection for plant leaves and as a building material for animals like bees?

Waxes

What do phospholipids compose in biological systems?

Cell membrane

Which vitamin is considered a fat-soluble vitamin and plays a role in vision?

Vitamin D

What is the main function of fats in living organisms?

Storage of energy

Which component of a lipid molecule consists of chains of hydrocarbons?

Fatty acids

What happens to proteins when they lose their conformation?

They denature and lose functionality

Which type of carbohydrate is sweet in taste and solid at room temperature?

Starch

What is the main function of steroids in living organisms?

Creating hormones

What is the main function of carbohydrates in the human body?

Produce energy

Which organic molecule is responsible for genetic coding?

Nucleic acids

What determines the properties of an organic molecule?

The type of functional group it has

What are polymers made up of?

Small repeating units called monomers

Which monosaccharide is considered a simple sugar?

Monosaccharide

How many saccharides make up an oligosaccharide?

Three to 10

In carbohydrates, what is the typical ratio of hydrogen to oxygen atoms?

2:1 (Hydrogen:Oxygen)

What is true about lipids?

They store energy and are involved in signaling

What distinguishes monosaccharides from polysaccharides?

Monosaccharides are simple sugars, while polysaccharides are made up of many monosaccharides.

Why are nucleic acids important in living organisms?

To carry genetic information and code for proteins.

How do functional groups affect the properties of organic molecules?

They influence the bonding patterns and reactivity.

What is the primary purpose of proteins in the human body?

To form structural components like hair and bones.

What type of organic molecule is primarily responsible for storing energy and serving as a biological signaling molecule?

Lipids

Which class of organic molecules is used in structures like hair, skin, and bones in the human body?

Proteins

How many saccharides are typically found in an oligosaccharide?

Three to 10

What characteristic distinguishes a monosaccharide from a polysaccharide?

Number of saccharides

What determines the properties of an organic molecule?

Functional groups and bonding pattern

In which class of organic molecules do polymers primarily exist?

Carbohydrates

What type of sugar molecule is mainly used for dietary energy?

Monosaccharides

Which chemical element is found in carbohydrates almost twice as much as oxygen?

Hydrogen

What is the main function of polysaccharides in living organisms?

Energy storage

Which term describes large complex molecules made up of small repeating units known as monomers?

Polymers

How many saccharides make up a polysaccharide?

More than 10

Which class of organic molecules are primarily used to produce energy?

Carbohydrates

What is the primary function of cellulose in the diet of humans?

Adding bulk to food

What do chaperone proteins assist in regarding protein molecules?

Aiding in the folding process

How are lipids primarily used in the human body?

For energy storage

Which lipid type is known for creating hormones and transporting them throughout the body?

Steroids

What happens to proteins if they are exposed to extreme pH or high temperature?

They undergo denaturation and lose their conformation

Which type of organic molecule is hydrophilic and can easily dissolve in water?

Carbohydrates

What is the primary role of triglycerides in living organisms?

Storing energy

What is the primary function of lipids in the human body?

Producing energy

Which type of molecule is denatured when exposed to extreme pH or high temperature?

Proteins

What distinguishes disaccharides from polysaccharides?

Number of monomers

How many saccharides make up an oligosaccharide?

3 to 10

What is the primary role of nucleic acids in living organisms?

Genetic coding

Which property determines the function of a functional group in an organic molecule?

Bonding pattern

What is the main function of polysaccharides in living organisms?

Energy storage

What is the primary function of glycogen in animals?

Storing energy

Which level of protein structure is determined by the three-dimensional arrangement of amino acids?

Tertiary structure

What is the main function of waxes in biological systems?

Acting as protection

What happens to a protein when it denatures?

It loses its conformation and becomes inactive

Which type of vitamin is classified as a fat-soluble vitamin?

Vitamin A

What is the primary role of phospholipids in biological systems?

Building cell membranes

Which characteristic distinguishes carbohydrates as a preferred energy source?

Ability to enter the bloodstream easily

In which category do fats belong within lipids?

Triglycerides

What is the characteristic feature of cellulose that makes it indigestible by humans?

It forms beta sheets.

What do chaperone proteins assist proteins with after translation?

Folding into tertiary structure

What role do steroids play in living organisms?

Hormone creation and transportation

Learn about the four classes of organic molecules in the human body: carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids. Understand their essential functions and roles within the body, including energy production, storage, and genetic coding.

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