Sociological Perspectives on the Self in Modern Society

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32 Questions

In pre-modern society, how much choice did individuals have in deciding where to live and what work to do?

Very little choice, as these decisions were largely determined by tradition and rules

How has modernization affected individuals' freedom and choices in modern society?

It has increased people's choices and freedom about what to do with their lives

According to the sociological approach to self and identity, what is the relationship between the self and society?

There is a reciprocal relationship between the self and society

How does society influence the self according to the sociological approach?

Through shared language and meanings

What is the role of society in relation to individuals, according to the text?

Society exists to serve individuals

According to the text, how does modernization impact individuals' guidance in making life choices?

Individuals today have little guidance on which options are the right ones or how they should proceed

According to the situational approach, how is society viewed?

As always being created through the interpretations and definitions of actors in situations

What is the key to understanding the link between self and society according to the structural approach?

Patterns of behavior within and between individuals

What constitutes social structure, based on the text?

The patterns of behavior across individuals that fit with the patterns of others to create larger patterns of behavior

From which perspective do we assume that society is stable and durable?

Structural approach

What is the mind according to Mead (1934)?

The thinking part of the self

How does self emerge according to the text?

Out of the mind, which arises and develops out of social interaction

What is self-concept generally thought of as?

The sum total of thoughts, feelings, and imaginations as to who we are

Who defined the self-concept as the sum total of our thoughts, feelings, and imaginations as to who we are?

(Rosenberg, 1979)

"Self emerges out of the mind, the mind as arising and developing out of social interaction" was proposed by:

(Mead, 1934)

"Patterns of behavior within and between individuals have different levels of analysis" is a key concept in:

(Stryker, 1980)

What does anthropology view the self as?

A culturally shaped construct or ideas

What is one of the most common distinctions between cultures and people according to the text?

Eastern vs. Western dichotomy

Who is known for his method of inquiry in testing an idea, shaping western thought?

Socrates

What is one of the key distinctions in the views of the self between Eastern and Western civilizations?

Culturally shaped construct or ideas

In which field is the self seen as a product of social interaction, developed over time through social activities and experiences?

Sociology

What does psychology see the self as?

Having characteristics or properties that can be used to describe it

According to Socrates, why is self-knowledge important?

To improve one's life

What did Plato believe is the most divine aspect of the human being?

The rational soul

According to Thomas Aquinas, what makes a human person a human person?

The soul

What did John Locke identify the self with?

Consciousness and memory

According to David Hume, how did he describe the self?

As a collection of perceptions and memories

What is Immanuel Kant's view of the self?

The self is related to transcendental ideas

What did Socrates believe was the ultimate reality?

The soul

What does Thomas Aquinas believe animates the body?

The soul

According to John Locke, what constitutes the self?

Consciousness and memory

How did Hume define 'impressions' in relation to the self?

Perceptions that are directly experienced and strong

Study Notes

Pre-Modern Society

  • In pre-modern society, individuals had limited choice in deciding where to live and what work to do.

Modernization

  • Modernization has increased individuals' freedom and choices in modern society.
  • Modernization has impacted individuals' guidance in making life choices.

Sociological Approach

  • According to the sociological approach, the self and society are closely linked.
  • Society influences the self.
  • The role of society is to shape the individual.

Structural Approach

  • The key to understanding the link between self and society is social structure.
  • Social structure refers to patterns of behavior within and between individuals.

Situational Approach

  • According to the situational approach, society is viewed as dynamic and ever-changing.

Perspectives on the Self

  • According to Mead (1934), the mind arises and develops out of social interaction.
  • Self emerges out of the mind through social interaction.
  • Self-concept is generally thought of as the sum total of our thoughts, feelings, and imaginations as to who we are.
  • Carl Rogers defined the self-concept as the sum total of our thoughts, feelings, and imaginations as to who we are.

Self Across Disciplines

  • In anthropology, the self is viewed as a product of social interaction.
  • In psychology, the self is seen as a product of social interaction, developed over time through social activities and experiences.

Western Philosophers

  • Socrates believed that self-knowledge is important.
  • Plato believed that the most divine aspect of the human being is the soul.
  • Thomas Aquinas believed that the soul animates the body and makes a human person a human person.
  • John Locke identified the self with consciousness.
  • David Hume described the self as a bundle of perceptions.
  • Immanuel Kant viewed the self as a morally responsible being.

Eastern and Western Civilizations

  • One of the key distinctions between Eastern and Western civilizations is the view of the self, with Eastern civilizations often viewing the self as interconnected with others, and Western civilizations viewing the self as an individual entity.

Explore the impact of modernization on individuals' self-identities and societal constructions. Discover how pre-modern and modern societies influence individuals' choices and behaviors, and their impact on self-development.

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