MSK Lec 3-6

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195 Questions

Which muscles are thick and flat, covering the vertical muscles somewhat like a bandage in the neck region?

Splenius muscles

What is the function of the erector spinae muscles in the vertebral column?

Chief extensors of the vertebral column

Which layer of deep back muscles lies on each side of the vertebral column and is divided into three columns: iliocostalis, longissimus, and spinalis?

Intermediate layer

What do the splenius muscles cover and hold in position in the neck region?

Deep neck muscles

Which region of the erector spinae forms the medial column?

Spinalis

What is the name given to the structure that extends laterally from the spinous processes and forms a covering over back muscles in different regions?

Thoracolumbar fascia

Which muscle is responsible for lateral flexion of the head and neck?

Longus capitis

What is the common origin of the three erector spinae columns?

Posterior part of the iliac crest

Which muscle group is deep to the erector spinae muscles?

Transversospinalis muscle group

During forced inhalation, which muscle group is responsible for elevating the sternum and clavicle?

Anterior Scalene

What is the primary action of the semispinalis capitis muscle?

Extension of the head

What is the main action of the erector spinae muscles?

Extension of the trunk

Which nerve innervates all the muscles in the deep group of anterior neck muscles?

Ventral rami of cervical spinal nerves

Which muscle is best developed in the lumbar region and plays a primary role in stabilizing the vertebral column?

Multifidus

Which muscle of the transversospinalis group is considered the superficial member?

Semispinalis

Which muscle among the deep neck muscles raises the first rib during inspiration?

Anterior Scalene

What is the primary action of the rotatores muscles?

Stabilization of the vertebral column

Where do the fibers of the longissimus muscle primarily attach to?

Transverse processes in thoracic region

Which muscle is involved in contralateral rotation of the head and neck?

Rectus capitis anterior

Which deep back muscle assists with respiration by helping elevate the ribs?

Levatores costarum

Which muscles are principal in producing movements of thoracic and lumbar intervertebral joints according to the text?

Back muscles

Which structures do the transversospinalis muscle group mainly pass between?

Transverse processes and spinous processes

What is the function of intertransversarii muscles in the thoracic region?

Stabilization and lateral flexion

Which muscle group is divided into semispinalis capitis, semispinalis thoracis, and semispinalis cervicis based on superior attachments?

Deep layer of deep back muscles

Which muscles lie deep to the trapezius, sternocleidomastoid, splenius, and semispinalis muscles?

Suboccipital muscles

What is the primary action of the suboccipital muscles?

Extension of atlanto-occipital joint

Which nerve innervates all four muscles of the suboccipital region?

Posterior ramus of C1

Which muscle originates from the medial 1/3 of the clavicle and the manubrium of the sternum?

Sternocleidomastoid

What is the innervation for the platysma muscle?

Facial nerve (CN VII)

'The sternocleidomastoid muscle inserts into which bony landmark?'

The mastoid process of the temporal bone

Which muscle moves the rib superiorly during inspiration?

External intercostal

What is the primary action of the internal intercostal muscle?

Moves rib inferiorly during expiration

Which nerve supplies the diaphragm?

Phrenic nerves (C3, C4, C5)

Where do the three main foramina in the diaphragm exist?

T9-T12 levels

What is the main action of the diaphragm muscle?

Depresses the ribs during expiration

What is the main function of the pectoral region in the thoracic wall?

Anchors the upper limb to the trunk

Which artery mainly supplies the breast, with its lateral thoracic branch playing a significant role?

Internal thoracic artery

Where does the majority of venous drainage from the breast occur?

Axillary vein

Which intercostal nerves innervate the breast tissue?

2nd to 6th intercostal nerves

Which vessels drain the posterior intercostal veins on both sides of the thoracic wall?

Azygos vein on the left side and hemiazygos vein on the right side

Which arteries primarily supply the thoracic wall through branches directly or indirectly from the internal thoracic artery?

Anterior intercostal arteries

Where do the anterior intercostal veins mainly drain?

Into internal thoracic veins

What is the primary nerve supply of the thoracic wall?

Anterior rami of the upper thoracic spinal nerves

Which nerve supplies the skin and muscles of the abdominal wall?

Subcostal nerve (T12)

Which artery is a direct continuation of the internal thoracic artery?

Superior epigastric artery

Venous drainage of the abdominal wall runs parallel to which arteries?

Superior epigastric and inferior epigastric arteries

Which spinal nerve innervates the lower intercostal muscles?

Subcostal nerve (T12)

What is the branch of the external iliac artery that supplies the anterolateral abdominal wall?

Inferior epigastric artery

Which arteries supply the anterolateral abdominal wall?

Branches of intercostal arteries

What is the main function of the intercostal nerves in the thoracic region?

Supplying skin and muscles only

What is the main function of the orbicularis oculi muscle?

Closing the eyelids

Which muscle is responsible for elevation and retraction of the upper eyelid?

Levator palpebrae superioris

Which layer of the scalp provides mobility due to its loose connective tissue?

Loose CT layer

What is the origin of the muscles covering the scalp, forehead, and eyebrows?

Galea aponeurotica layer of skull

What is the insertion point of the Occipitalis muscle?

Superior nuchal line

Which muscle closes the eyelids in concentric bands around the upper and lower eyelids?

Orbicularis oculi

Which muscle in the mouth region helps to keep food in the mouth, resists distension of the mouth, and presses the cheeks against teeth and lips?

Orbicularis oris

Which muscle group in the face is responsible for retracting the various borders of the oral fissure individually or in groups?

Dilator muscles radiating from the lips

Which muscle of the nose is relatively unimportant in humans and provides evidence of breathing behaviors?

Muscles of the nose

Which muscle in the mouth region is involved in closing and protruding lips, such as during kissing?

Levator labii superioris

Which group of muscles in the face helps direct the ears toward sources of sound in animals?

Muscles of the ears

Which muscle in the cheek region helps press cheeks against teeth and lips, keeping food in the mouth and resisting distension?

Buccinator

Which muscle is responsible for moving the jaw laterally and protruding it forward?

Lateral pterygoid

Where does the temporalis muscle originate from?

Temporal fossa and fascia

Which muscle inserts into the articular disc and neck of the mandible?

Lateral pterygoid

What is the main function of the masseter muscle?

Closes the jaw

Which muscle is innervated by the mandibular nerve (V3)?

Medial pterygoid

What type of joint is the temporomandibular joint (TMJ)?

Combined hinge and planar joint

What fibrocartilaginous structure separates the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) into superior and inferior compartments?

Articular disc

Which ligament helps prevent posterior dislocation of the mandible at the temporomandibular joint (TMJ)?

TMJ-lateral ligament

During which movement of the mouth does the head of the mandible move anteriorly on the articular disc?

Opening the mouth

What can cause a dislocation of the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) according to the text?

Lateral blow to the chin with the mouth closed

Which ligament extends from the styloid process of the temporal bone to the ramus of the mandible?

TMJ-stylomandibular ligament

What is the function of the TMJ-stylomandibular ligament according to the text?

Limits movement of mandible at TMJ

What is the main function of the common carotid arteries in the head and neck?

Supplying blood to the face and neck

Which artery supplies the brain and eyes with oxygenated blood?

Internal carotid artery

Where do the internal and external jugular veins primarily drain blood from?

Head and neck

What is the main function of the venous drainage system of the head and neck?

Draining all blood from the head and neck

Which part of the body does the Axillary artery enter after passing under the clavicle?

Lower limb

Which region receives supply from both the thyrocervical trunk and post-scalene artery branches?

Larynx

Which bone forms part of the external surface of the base of the skull?

Occipital bone

Which region of the skull contains the posterior cranial fossa?

Middle Cranial Fossa

Which bone is considered part of the Viscerocranium or Facial Skeleton?

Vomer

In which aspect of the skull can you find the Lacrimal bone?

Internal Surface of Cranial Base

Which bone is NOT considered part of the Neurocranium (Brain Box)?

Maxilla

Which bone contributes to both the anterior and middle cranial fossae?

Sphenoid bone

Which bone forms a significant portion of the posterior aspect of the skull?

Occipital bone

What anatomical structure passes through the Optic Foramen?

Cranial Nerve II

Which foramen is positioned just posterior to the Superior Orbital Fissure?

Foramen Rotundum

Which cranial nerve passes through the Foramen Ovale?

Cranial Nerve V3

Which foramen sits just lateral to the Foramen Ovale?

Foramen Spinosum

Where is the Hypoglossal Canal located?

Occipital Bone

Which structure passes through the Internal Auditory Meatus?

Cranial Nerve VIII

What passes through the Stylomastoid Foramen?

Cranial Nerve VII

Where is the Carotid Canal located?

Temporal Bone

Where does the transversalis fascia meet the posterior aspect of the rectus abdominis muscles?

Superior to the arcuate line

Which structure lies between the parietal peritoneum and the extraperitoneal fat in the anterolateral abdominal wall?

Transversalis fascia

Which muscle forms the deepest layer of the anterolateral abdominal wall?

Transversus abdominis muscle

What is the composition of Scarpa’s fascia in the anterolateral abdominal wall?

Membranous layer

Where does Camper’s fascia lie in relation to Scarpa’s fascia in the anterolateral abdominal wall?

Above Scarpa’s fascia

Which structure lies superficial to both the external and internal oblique muscles in the anterolateral abdominal wall?

Camper’s fascia

What is the posterior lamina of the rectus sheath composed of in the superior portion of the abdominal wall?

Posterior 1/2 of aponeuroses of internal oblique and full aponeurosis of transversus abdominis muscles

What is the primary function of the rectus abdominis muscle?

Flexion of the trunk

Where is Scarpa's Fascia located in relation to the abdominal wall layers?

Between Camper's fascia and the skin

At what level does the aponeuroses of lateral abdominal muscles pass anterior to the rectus abdominis muscle?

At the arcuate line

Where do the intercostal nerves innervating the rectus abdominis muscle originate from?

Thoracic spine (T6-T12)

What is the composition of the rectus sheath inferior to the umbilicus?

Combination of all three flat muscle aponeuroses

Where is Campers Fascia located in relation to Scarpa's Fascia?

Above Scarpa's Fascia

What structure separates the posterior surface of transversus abdominis muscle from extraperitoneal fat at the arcuate line level?

Transversalis fascia

Which muscle is sometimes considered to be the iliopsoas due to its common distal attachment onto the lesser trochanter of the femur?

Psoas major

Which muscle of the posterior abdominal wall originates from the iliac crest, iliolumbar ligament, and inserts on rib 12 and transverse processes of L1-L4?

Quadratus lumborum

What nerve innervates the psoas major muscle?

Lumbar plexus (L1, L2, 3)

What structure extends from the deep inguinal ring to the superficial inguinal ring and contains the spermatic cord in males and the round ligament of the uterus in females?

Inguinal canal

Where is the superficial inguinal ring located?

A triangular gap in the external oblique aponeurosis

What passes through the deep inguinal ring?

Femoral nerve

Which nerve is found within the inguinal canal along with the spermatic cord in males?

Ilioinguinal nerve

What structure lies immediately lateral to the stem of the inferior epigastric vessels?

Deep inguinal ring

What is the orientation of the inguinal canal compared to the inguinal ligament?

Oblique

Which muscle is situated on the lateral and anterior parts of the abdomen, is the largest and most superficial of the three flat muscles in this region?

Obliquus externus abdominis

Which muscle is the most internal of the flat muscles of the abdomen?

Transversus abdominis

Which muscle is situated beneath the Obliquus externus abdominis and is thinner and smaller than it?

Obliquus internus abdominis

Which muscle originates from the medial 1/3 of the clavicle and the manubrium of the sternum?

Transversus thoracis

Which muscle covers and holds in position the internal abdominal oblique muscle?

Transversus abdominis

Which muscle covers and holds in position the external abdominal oblique muscle?

Diaphragm

Where does the conoid tubercle lie in relation to the clavicle?

Close to the trapezoid line

What is the location of the subclavian groove on the clavicle?

Inferior surface of the clavicular body

Which of the following bones is overlaid by the scapula?

7th rib

In what direction does the spine of the scapula rise?

Laterally

What is the shape of the acromion angle?

Flattened

Where is the acromial articular facet located?

Near the lateral end

Which bone in the forearm has two prominent projections, the olecranon and coronoid process?

Ulna

Where is the radial notch located in the ulna?

On the lateral surface

Which bone in the carpal region is superimposed on the triquetrum in the proximal row?

Lunate

What forms the walls of the trochlear notch in the ulna?

Olecranon and coronoid process

What is located between the distal end of the radius and ulna?

Supinator crest

Which bone in the carpal region is located most laterally in the distal row?

Trapezium

Which region of the body does the axial skeleton primarily cover?

Thorax and abdomen

What is the unique orientation of the clavicle among the upper limb bones?

Horizontal

Which part of the skeleton consists of the pelvic and pectoral girdles?

Appendicular skeleton

Which bone makes up the pelvic girdle in the human body?

Sacrum

What are the components of the appendicular skeleton?

Humerus, radius, ulna, carpal bones, metacarpal bone, phalanges

What is the main function of the shoulder girdle in relation to the upper limb?

Supports and stabilizes the arm during different movements

Where is the suprascapular notch located?

Medial to the base of the coracoid process

Which part of the humerus lies proximally on the body?

Surgical neck

What lies behind the deltoid tuberosity on the humerus?

Radial groove

Which bone in the hand has a tubercle on its palmar surface?

Scaphoid

Where is the infraglenoid tubercle situated?

Below the glenoid cavity

What structure converts the carpal arch into the carpal tunnel?

Flexor retinaculum

How many phalanges does the thumb possess?

Two

Which structure lies between the greater and lesser tubercles of the humerus?

Intertubercular sulcus

Which part of the hand articulates with the proximal phalanges?

Head of metacarpal bones

What can be found laterally on the body of the humerus?

Deltoid tuberosity

What is the main function of the flexor retinaculum in the hand?

Conversion of arch into tunnel

How many tendons and a nerve pass through the carpal tunnel from the forearm to the hand?

Nine tendons and a nerve

Which cord of the brachial plexus gives rise to the musculocutaneous nerve?

Lateral cord

Which nerve is formed by the posterior cord of the brachial plexus?

Axillary nerve

From which division do the lateral and medial cords of the brachial plexus originate?

Anterior division

Which part of the brachial plexus forms lateral to the artery?

Superior trunk

How many roots combine to form the brachial plexus?

5 roots

Which nerve is associated with the medial cord of the brachial plexus?

Median nerve

What mnemonic is used to remember the formation of the brachial plexus?

Red Trucks Drive Cats Nuts

Where does the brachial plexus pass through after exiting the intervertebral foramen?

Axilla

Which muscles border the axilla?

Serratus Anterior, Coracobrachialis, Pectoralis Major, Subscapularis

Which branches combine to form the three cords of the brachial plexus?

Anterior divisions

How many divisions does each trunk of the brachial plexus give off?

Two

In what order do the 5 roots of the brachial plexus combine to form the terminal branches?

5-3-6-3-5

Which nerve innervates the upper fibers of the trapezius muscle for external and lateral flexion of the head?

Spinal Accessory nerve (CN XI)

What is the nerve innervation for the trapezius muscle as a whole?

Spinal Accessory nerve (CN XI)

Where does the middle part of the trapezius muscle attach?

Spinous processes of T1 to T5

What is the function of the lower part of the trapezius muscle?

Elevates and retracts the scapula

Which cord of the brachial plexus is responsible for the innervation of the radial nerve?

Posterior Cord

What is the innervation source for the deltoid muscle?

(C5-T1) Radial Nerve

Which muscle is responsible for adduction, medial rotation of the arm, and flexion of the arm?

Pectoralis major

What is the primary action of the Latissimus dorsi muscle?

Extension of arm

Which muscle is unable to rotate the glenoid cavity superiorly, resulting in the inability to do pushing actions or raise the arm above the head?

Serratus anterior

Which nerve innervates both the Pectoralis major and Latissimus dorsi muscles?

Thoracodorsal nerve

What action does the Pectoralis major muscle perform that is NOT shared by the Latissimus dorsi muscle?

Horizontal ADDuction of the arm

Where does the Latissimus dorsi muscle originate from?

Spinous processes T7 to L5

Which muscle is responsible for the upward rotation of the scapula?

Rhomboids major

What is the action of Levator Scapulae at the scapulocostal joint?

Elevation of scapula

Where does Rhomboids major insert?

Medial (vertebral) border of scapula inferior to spine

What nerve innervates the Rhomboids major?

Dorsal scapular nerve

What is the primary action of Pectoralis minor?

Protraction (ABD.) of scapula

Where do the Middle Fibers of Traps primarily attach?

Medial border of scapula at the root of the spine

Which bony landmark do the lateral fibers of the deltoid muscle primarily attach to?

Greater tubercle of the humerus

What is the main function of the suprascapular notch?

Passage for the suprascapular nerve

Where does the occipitalis muscle primarily originate from?

Occipital bone

Which artery is a direct continuation of the subclavian artery?

Axillary artery

What is the primary function of the sternocleidomastoid muscle?

Flexion and lateral rotation of the neck

Which muscle is responsible for the internal rotation of the humerus?

Subscapularis

Which muscle acts primarily to stabilize the shoulder joint capsule?

Supraspinatus

Which muscle originates from the superior lateral border of the scapula?

Teres Minor

Which muscle is innervated by the axillary nerve?

Teres Major

Which muscle inserts into the medial lip of the intertubercular sulcus (groove) of the humerus?

Subscapularis

Among the rotator cuff muscles, which muscle originates from the infraspinous fossa?

Subscapularis

Learn about the semispinalis muscles which are divided into three parts and their primary actions in the extension of the head, cervical spine, and thoracic spine. Explore the deep layer of deep back muscles including the multifidus which consists of short, triangular muscular bundles.

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