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Respiratory System- Week 5

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28 Questions

What role does the chemoreceptors in the brain and peripheries play in the respiratory system?

Monitoring CO2 and pH levels in the blood

What is the function of pulmonary circulation in the respiratory system?

Moving blood to and from alveolocapillary membrane

What is hypoventilation?

Inadequate alveolar ventilation to meet oxygen demands

What can cause hypoxia according to the text?

Poor tissue perfusion with oxygenated blood

What lifestyle risk factor is associated with poor oxygenation according to the text?

Substance abuse

What is the function of the pulmonary artery according to the text?

Brings deoxygenated blood from the heart to the lungs

'Alterations in Respiratory Function' can be caused by which condition?

'Decreased diffusion (pneumonia)'

Why does hyperventilation occur according to the text?

Excessive ventilation beyond what is needed

What can cause hypoventilation?

Severe atelectasis

What physiological factor is identified as affecting oxygenation?


What is the physiological underlying cause of dyspnea?

inability to exchange oxygen into the blood stream

Which intervention is part of airway maintenance for patients with respiratory issues?

Incentive spirometry

What is a common pharmacological measure used in dyspnea management?


Which technique is used in artificial airways maintenance and promotion of lung expansion?


What is a common non-pharmacological technique for managing dyspnea?


What is the purpose of chest physiotherapy in airway maintenance?

To aid in secretion clearance

What does the presence of clubbed nails indicate in relation to the respiratory system?

Prolonged oxygen deficiency

Which technique is commonly used for promoting oxygenation in patients?

Diaphragmatic breathing

During auscultation of the lungs, what may adventitious breath sounds indicate?

Fluid in the lungs

'Pursed-lip breathing' is a type of breathing exercise that is often recommended for individuals with:

"Asthma/ COPD"

Which term refers to the hollow, air-filled sound heard upon percussion of the lungs?


"Tracheal suctioning" is a technique primarily used for clearing secretions from the:


In relation to palpation of the respiratory system, what is tactile fremitus used to detect?

Fluid in the lungs

Which of the following is NOT a physiological technique used in managing dyspnea?


What may retraction and sinking of skin between intercostal spaces indicate during chest wall movement inspection?

Prolonged oxygen deficiency

What aspect of the respiratory system is assessed by noting the anteroposterior diameter of the chest wall?

Chest wall expansion

What is the primary purpose of an Endotracheal (ET) airway?

To maintain an open airway during anesthesia or emergency intubation

Which condition may hyper-resonance upon percussion of the lungs suggest?


Study Notes

Chemoreceptors and Respiratory Function

  • Chemoreceptors in the brain and peripheries play a crucial role in regulating respiratory function by detecting changes in CO2 and O2 levels.

Pulmonary Circulation

  • The primary function of pulmonary circulation is to oxygenate deoxygenated blood and remove CO2 from the body.

Hypoventilation and Hypoxia

  • Hypoventilation occurs when the lungs are unable to take in sufficient oxygen, leading to decreased oxygen levels in the blood.
  • Hypoxia can be caused by a range of factors, including respiratory diseases, such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), pneumonia, and pulmonary edema.

Pulmonary Artery and Oxygenation

  • The pulmonary artery carries deoxygenated blood from the heart to the lungs, where oxygenation takes place.
  • Poor oxygenation is associated with a lifestyle risk factor: physical inactivity.

Alterations in Respiratory Function

  • Alterations in respiratory function can be caused by conditions such as pneumonia, pulmonary edema, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD).


  • Hyperventilation occurs when the body responds to acid-base imbalances, anxiety, or stress by increasing breathing rate.

Respiratory Factors and Interventions

  • Physiological factors affecting oxygenation include respiratory rate, tidal volume, and gas exchange in the lungs.
  • Dyspnea is caused by an imbalance between the body's oxygen demand and the respiratory system's ability to meet that demand.
  • Airway maintenance for patients with respiratory issues involves techniques such as suctioning and chest physiotherapy.
  • Pharmacological measures used in dyspnea management include oxygen therapy.
  • Non-pharmacological techniques for managing dyspnea include diaphragmatic breathing exercises and relaxation techniques.
  • The purpose of chest physiotherapy is to promote lung expansion and mucus clearance.

Assessment and Diagnosis

  • The presence of clubbed nails indicates chronic respiratory disease or cardiopulmonary disease.
  • Tactile fremitus is used to detect vibrations in the chest wall during palpation.
  • Adventitious breath sounds during auscultation may indicate respiratory disease or infection.
  • Hyper-resonance upon percussion of the lungs suggests conditions such as emphysema or pneumothorax.

Breathing Techniques and Interventions

  • Pursed-lip breathing is a breathing exercise recommended for individuals with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD).
  • The primary purpose of an endotracheal (ET) airway is to establish a secure airway in patients requiring mechanical ventilation.
  • Suctioning is a technique used to clear secretions from the trachea.
  • Chest inspection involves noting the anteroposterior diameter of the chest wall to assess symmetry and respiratory function.

Test your knowledge on the anatomy, physiology, factors affecting oxygenation, alterations in respiratory functioning, and nursing process related to the respiratory system. Includes topics like respiratory control, chemoreceptors, pulmonary circulation, and more.

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