Respiratory System Anatomy Quiz

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60 Questions

What is considered the functional unit of the Lungs?

Alveoli

In the respiratory system, diffusion through which connecting vessels occurs based on gradient increases?

Capillary

Where do central chemoreceptors in the medulla respond to changes in carbon dioxide levels and hydrogen ion concentrations?

Alveoli

Which structure separates the thoracic and abdominal cavities and is considered one of the accessory structures?

Diaphragm

What is the cartilaginous valve flap that covers the opening of the larynx during swallowing?

Epiglottis

Which structures can be found in bones, cartilage, septum, and cilia?

Trachea

What is responsible for moving mucus to the back of the throat in the nose?

Cilia

What is the function of the visceral pleura?

Covers the lung surface

Which structure is described as a hollow tube composed of smooth muscles and supported by C-shaped cartilage?

Trachea

What controls the rate and depth of ventilation in the body?

Medulla and pons in the brain

Which term refers to the exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide through the alveolar capillary membrane?

Diffusion

What is the main function of the epiglottis?

Prevent swallowing food

In respiratory physiology, what results from poor ventilation, poor diffusion, and poor perfusion?

Hypoxia

What mechanism adjusts pH in response to CO2 changes from lungs and HCO3 from kidneys?

Transport of Gases

What structure in the respiratory system is responsible for gas exchange and considered the functional unit of the Lungs?

Alveoli

Which structure separates the thoracic and abdominal cavities and is one of the accessory structures in the respiratory system?

Diaphragm

What is the name of the paired elastic structures enclosed by the thoracic cage in the respiratory system?

Lungs

Which part of the respiratory system responds to changes in carbon dioxide levels and hydrogen ion concentrations in the cerebrospinal fluid?

Medulla oblongata

What structures can be found in bones, cartilage, septum, and cilia within the respiratory system?

Nasal Cavity

During inspiration, which gas has a higher concentration in the alveoli than it does in the capillaries?

Oxygen

What part of the respiratory system serves as a connection between arteries and veins for diffusion to occur?

Capillary

Which structure in the respiratory system bifurcates at the carina to form left and right bronchi?

Trachea

What fine hairs found in the nose are responsible for moving mucus to the back of the throat?

Cilia

What is the term for two external openings that admit air to the lungs and smell to the olfactory nerves?

Nostrils

What is the main function of respiration?

Exchanging O2 and CO2 between the blood and cells

What is the term for the circulation that is responsible for gas exchange in the lungs?

Pulmonary circulation

What does hyperventilation lead to in terms of blood chemistry?

High respiratory alkalosis

Which structure closes over the trachea to prevent swallowing food?

Epiglottis

What term refers to a decreased level of oxygen in the blood?

Hypoxemia

What mechanism adjusts pH levels in response to changes in CO2 from the lungs and bicarbonate from the kidneys?

Alveolar respiration

Which method provides blood supply to the trachea and bronchi?

Bronchial circulation

What structure is described as a cartilaginous valve flap that covers the opening of the larynx during swallowing?

Epiglottis

Within the respiratory system, which structures are responsible for gas exchange and considered the functional unit of the Lungs?

Alveoli

What is the term for the two external openings that admit air to the lungs and smell to the olfactory nerves?

Nostrils

Which one-cell single layer acts as a connection between arteries and veins for diffusion to occur based on gradient increases in the respiratory system?

Capillary

What is the name of the structure that separates the thoracic and abdominal cavities and is considered one of the accessory structures in the respiratory system?

Diaphragm

During inspiration, which gas has a higher concentration in the alveoli than it does in the capillaries?

Oxygen

Which structure responds to changes in carbon dioxide levels and hydrogen ion concentrations in the cerebrospinal fluid in the respiratory system?

Central Chemoreceptors

What structures are found in bones, cartilage, septum, and cilia within the respiratory system?

Nasal Cavity

Which part of the respiratory system consists of fine hairs that move mucus to the back of the throat?

Cilia

What is responsible for controlling rate and depth of ventilation in the body?

Respiratory Centers

What is the term for the mechanism where the diaphragm contracts and flattens during inspiration?

Inspiration

Which of the following terms describes the exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide through the alveolar capillary membrane?

Diffusion

What controls the rate and depth of ventilation in the body?

Medulla and Pons

What is the main function of the visceral pleura in the respiratory system?

Covering the Lung Surface

Which structure is responsible for moving mucus to the back of the throat in the nose?

Cilia

What is the term for a decreased level of carbon dioxide in the blood?

Hypocapnia

Which method provides blood supply to the trachea and bronchi in the respiratory system?

Bronchial Circulation

'Alveolar Respiration' involves adjusting pH levels by two mechanisms: CO$_2$ from lungs and which other component from kidneys?

Serum Bicarbonate

Which structure is considered as the functional unit of the lungs in the respiratory system?

Alveoli

What is the main function of the epiglottis in the respiratory system?

To prevent swallowing of food into the trachea

Which structure is NOT involved in gas exchange in the respiratory system?

Trachea

What is the term for a decrease in carbon dioxide levels in the blood?

Hypocapnia

Which mechanism is responsible for adjusting pH by reacting to changes in CO2 and hydrogen ion levels from the lungs and kidneys?

Alveolar respiration

What is the main function of the visceral pleura in the respiratory system?

To cover the lung surface

What structures are considered the functional unit of the Lungs in the respiratory system?

Alveoli

Where do central chemoreceptors in the medulla respond to changes in carbon dioxide levels and hydrogen ion concentrations?

Cerebrospinal fluid

What is the main function of the epiglottis in the respiratory system?

Covering the opening of the larynx during swallowing

Which gas has a higher concentration in the alveoli than it does in the capillaries during inspiration?

Oxygen

What is the term for two external openings that admit air to the lungs and smell to the olfactory nerves?

Nostrils

Study Notes

.1 Alveoli are small sacs at the end of bronchioles responsible for gas exchange, the functional unit of the lungs.2 The trachea bifurcates at the carina to form left and right bronchi.3 A single layer of cells act as a connection between arteries and veins for gas diffusion.4 Ventilation is controlled by the respiratory centers in the medulla oblongata and pons, and central chemoreceptors.5 Cilia in the nose move mucus towards the throat.6 The diaphragm separates the thoracic and abdominal cavities, aiding respiration.7 The epiglottis is a cartilaginous valve that blocks the larynx during swallowing.8 Lungs are elastic structures enclosed by the thoracic cage.9 The nasal cavity is the space between the nasal bones and the palate.10 Nostrils are external openings for air intake and smell.11 During inspiration, oxygen concentration is higher in alveoli than in capillaries.12 The pharynx carries air and food.13 Pleural membranes cover the lung surface and chest wall.14 Respiration is the process of exchanging oxygen and carbon dioxide between the atmosphere, blood, and cells.15 The trachea is a hollow tube supported by C-shaped cartilage.16 Circulation supplies blood to different organs and lungs for gas exchange.17 Diaphragm and thoracic cavity expand during deep breaths for gas intake.18 Epiglottis prevents food from entering the trachea during swallowing.19 CO2 level in the body stimulates breathing through hypoxic drive.20 Larynx, a voicebox, has three parts: oral, nasal, and laryngeal.21 Mechanisms of ventilation include diaphragm contraction and relaxation.22 Chemoreceptors in the medulla respond to CO2 and hydrogen ion levels in cerebrospinal fluid.23 Diffusion occurs through alveolar capillary membranes based on concentration gradients.24 Alveolar respiration adjusts PH levels using carbonic acid from lungs and serum bicarbonate from kidneys.25 Arterial blood gases (ABGs) test measures these findings.26 Respiratory insufficiency results in poor ventilation, diffusion, and perfusion.27 Hypoxia, hypoxemia, hypercapnia, and hypocapnia are related to insufficient oxygen and carbon dioxide levels.28 Asthma, smokers, chronic bronchitis, tumors, and fibrosis cause respiratory problems.29 Decreased surfactant and alveolar collapse (atelectasis) are other causes.

Test your knowledge of the anatomy of the respiratory system with this quiz. Identify structures such as alveoli, bronchi, capillaries, and more. Understand the connection between different components that make up the respiratory system.

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