Raoult’s Law and Deviations

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In a binary liquid solution where both components are volatile, which law is used to calculate the total pressure?

Raoult’s law

What types of deviations from Raoult’s law are observed in solutions?

Positive and negative deviations

Which properties of solutions depend on the number of solute particles regardless of their chemical identity?

Colligative properties

If a pressure higher than the osmotic pressure is applied to a solution, what process can be reversed?

Osmosis

According to Henry’s law, what is the relationship between gas solubility and partial pressure in a liquid?

Directly proportional

What is the law governing the lowering of vapor pressure of a solvent by a non-volatile solute?

Raoult's law

Why do mixtures like phenol and aniline show negative deviations from Raoult's law?

Stronger intermolecular hydrogen bonding between phenolic proton and nitrogen atom of aniline.

What characteristic of a mixture leads to negative deviations from Raoult's law?

Stronger intermolecular forces within the components than between them.

What type of azeotrope is formed by solutions showing large positive deviations from Raoult's law?

Minimum boiling azeotrope.

How does the formation of hydrogen bonds between chloroform and acetone affect their vapor pressures?

Decreases their vapor pressures.

What is the main reason behind the negative deviations from Raoult's law in mixtures like chloroform and acetone?

Hydrogen bonding between chloroform and acetone molecules.

Which type of binary mixture has the same composition in both liquid and vapor phases?

Azeotrope.

Why does a solution show positive deviation from Raoult’s law?

A-B interactions are weaker than A-A or B-B interactions.

What effect does adding acetone to pure ethanol have on the hydrogen bonds?

Breaks some of the hydrogen bonds.

In a solution showing positive deviation, what happens to the vapour pressure compared to the pure solvent?

Vapour pressure increases.

Which type of interaction is weaker in a solution showing positive deviation from Raoult's law?

Solute-solvent interactions

How does the addition of carbon disulphide to acetone affect the dipolar interactions?

Dipolar interactions become weaker.

Which law is associated with deviations such as positive and negative deviation from ideal behavior in solutions?

Raoult's law

Explore the concept of deviations from Raoult's law in solutions, focusing on the nature of molecular interactions and the implications of positive deviations. Learn how weaker solute-solvent interactions lead to increased vapor pressure in such solutions.

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