Protein Synthesis: Ribosome Functions and Translation Process

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What is the main function of the small subunit of a ribosome?

Binds to the Shine-Dalgarno sequence

Which of the following is true about the large subunit of a ribosome?

Contains the E, P, and A tRNA binding sites

During the termination phase of translation, what binds to the stop codons?

Release factors

What is the function of fMet in translation initiation in bacteria?

Forming a complex with small ribosomal subunit

Which site on the large subunit of a ribosome is responsible for holding the growing polypeptide chain?

P site

What does the small ribosomal subunit initially bind to during translation initiation?

Shine-Dalgarno sequence

Which of the following is a characteristic of the termination stage of polypeptide synthesis?

Recognition of nonsense codons

What is the role of release factors in the termination stage of polypeptide synthesis?

Halting polypeptide synthesis

Which type of mutations occur more frequently: Transition or Transversion mutations?

Transition mutations

What are the possible forms that mutations can take?


What is the difference between synonymous and non-synonymous mutations?

Non-synonymous mutations don't alter amino acids

In the cell cycle, what is the specific relationship between DNA replication and metabolism?

Metabolism influences DNA replication

In the three levels of tRNA structure, the tertiary structure is represented by which shape?

T shape

What is the function of transfer RNAs (tRNAs) in translation?

Translate mRNA codons to amino acids

Which component of tRNA carries a specific amino acid and base pairs with mRNA codons?


What phenomenon is described by the term 'codon wobble' in relation to tRNAs?

Recognition of multiple codons by a single tRNA

Which component of tRNA forms the secondary structure resembling a cloverleaf shape?

Anticodon loop

What is the role of ribosomes in translation?

Mediating the assembly of amino acids into proteins

How many subunits make up a ribosome?


During the initiation phase of translation, what binds to the start codon on mRNA to signify the beginning of translation?

'Start' codon

'A specific tRNA is covalently coupled to a specific amino acid', highlighting this statement reflects which concept?

'One tRNA, one amino acid'

'Base pairing between mRNA codon and tRNA anticodon determines which amino acid is added to growing polypeptide.' This process primarily occurs during:


What is the role of introns in the context of translation?

Removed during RNA splicing

What is the function of the acceptor stem in tRNA molecules?

Carry the amino acid

Learn about the different functions of the small and large subunits of a ribosome during protein synthesis. Explore the translation process, including the initiation phase in prokaryotes and the distinct tRNA binding areas in the large subunit.

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