Physical Pharmacy Thermodynamics: Energy Transformation and Control of Reactions

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What is the internal energy (E) of a system?

The energy of the particles in the system

What is a thermodynamic system?

A region of the universe that we direct our attention to

What is the transfer of thermal energy between two bodies that are at different temperatures called?

Heat

Which variable is an example of a state variable in a thermodynamic system?

Pressure

What does work represent in thermodynamics?

Transfer of energy used to change height of a weight of system in respect to surrounding

In thermodynamics, what is the surroundings?

Everything outside a system

What type of energy transfer is heat in thermodynamics?

Transfer of thermal energy between two bodies at different temperatures

What does the thermodynamic state of a system refer to?

The state with definite value of dependent variables like pressure, temperature, and volume

What is the transfer of energy as a result of a temperature difference called in thermodynamics?

Heat

What represents everything outside a thermodynamic system?

Surroundings

Which term refers to the boundary that separates a system from its surroundings in thermodynamics?

Boundary

What type of transfer is used to change the height of a weight of system in respect to surrounding in thermodynamics?

Work

According to the Zeroth Law of Thermodynamics, what does it indicate when two systems are in thermal equilibrium with each other?

The two systems are at the same temperature.

Which statement best describes the First Law of Thermodynamics?

Energy can be converted from one form to another, but it cannot be created nor destroyed.

What is the relation between heat and work in an isolated system, according to the First Law of Thermodynamics?

$Q=-W$

What is enthalpy a measure of?

The amount of energy within a substance, both kinetic and potential.

According to the Second Law of Thermodynamics, what happens to the entropy of the entire universe over time?

It increases.

How does free energy ($\Delta G$) relate to the spontaneity of a process?

$\Delta G < 0$ indicates a spontaneous process.

For which case will the reaction O2 → 2O occur spontaneously?

$\Delta H < 0$, $\Delta S > 0$ at high temperature

What concept does bond energy represent when broken or formed in a chemical reaction?

The net energy associated with the heat of reaction.

$C==C$ bond is broken (requiring 130 kcal), a $Cl—Cl$ bond is broken (requiring 57 kcal), a $C—C$ bond is formed (liberating 80 kcal), and two $C—Cl$ bonds are formed (156 kcal). What is the bond energy ($\Delta H$) in this structure when broken?

-49 kcal

$ΔG=ΔH−TΔS$. If $ΔG > 0$, what does it indicate about the spontaneity of the process?

$ΔH < TΔS$, spontaneous in reverse direction.

$ΔE=Q+W$. What does this equation represent?

$ΔE$ is the change in internal energy of a closed system due to heat and work interactions.

Why does heat always flow from a hotter body to a colder body, as stated by the Second Law of Thermodynamics?

To increase the entropy of the colder body

Explore the fundamental concepts of thermodynamics in physical pharmacy, including energy transformation, control of chemical reactions, spontaneity, and forms of energy. Learn about internal energy and the system in relation to thermodynamics.

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