Pharmacology Quiz: Anaemia, Seizures, and Indications of Carbamazepine

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30 Questions

What is a potential effect on the fetus when Carbamazepine is taken during pregnancy?

Cleft palate

Which of the following is a common adverse effect associated with Carbamazepine when plasma levels exceed 8.5mg/L?

Ataxia

Why is Phenobarbitone typically used as a second-line treatment for seizures in both adults and children?

Adults find it too sedative, while children experience behavioral disturbances

What is a notable pharmacokinetic characteristic of Sodium Valproate mentioned in the text?

High brain:plasma ratio

Which of the following conditions is Carbamazepine NOT contraindicated in?

Atrial Ventricular abnormalities

Which statement accurately describes Carbamazepine's pharmacokinetics as outlined in the text?

Controlled release preparations increase peak plasma concentration

What is a common indication for Phenytoin usage?

Status epilepticus

Which factor can lead to a decrease in Phenytoin protein binding?

Pregnancy

What effect does concurrent carbamazepine use have on Phenytoin metabolism?

It accelerates Phenytoin metabolism

Which of the following is a potential adverse effect of Phenytoin related to the skin and collagen?

Gum hypertrophy

Why is therapeutic drug monitoring crucial for patients on Phenytoin?

To prevent toxicity due to its narrow therapeutic index

What type of seizures is Ethosuximide primarily used to treat?

Generalised seizures

What is the primary route of excretion for vigabatrin?

Unchanged excretion via kidneys

Why does the action of vigabatrin remain prolonged?

Irreversible binding to transaminase

Which of the following is NOT listed as an adverse effect of vigabatrin?

Weight loss

What effect does oxcarbazepine have on sodium levels?

Leads to sodium loss

In which type of seizures is clonazepam indicated for long-term use?

Myoclonic epilepsy

What is the recommended first-line agent for status epilepticus?

Lorazepam intravenously

Which drug is known for prolonging the inactivated state of Na channels and inhibiting glutamate release?

Lamotrigine

Which anticonvulsant can induce the metabolism of carbamazepine and phenytoin?

Topiramate

Which anticonvulsant is contraindicated in hepatic or renal impairment?

Lamotrigine

Which anticonvulsant has a pharmacokinetic profile with 55% oral absorption and is metabolized in the liver by glucuronidation?

Lamotrigine

Which anticonvulsant is known for being reserved for resistant epilepsy due to significant irreversible visual defects?

Vigabatrin

Which anticonvulsant can attenuate neuronal excitation by blocking Na channels and enhancing GABA mediated inhibition?

Topiramate

Which medication prolongs the inactivated state of voltage-dependent Na⁺ and Ca⁺⁺ channels?

Carbamazepine

Which drug enhances the effects of the inhibitory neurotransmitter GABA?

Ketamine

Which medication inhibits the effects of the excitatory neurotransmitter Glutamate by modulating NMDA receptors?

Phenytoin

What is the mechanism of action of Benzodiazepines like Clonazepam and Diazepam on GABA receptors?

GABA-A receptor complex activation

Which drug blocks GABA-A receptor complex activity and is used to prevent seizure spread?

Phenobarbitone

What is the main effect of GABA binding to receptor-operated chloride channels in the GABA receptor-channel complex?

Hyperpolarization and suppression of discharges

Test your knowledge on topics such as macrocytic anaemia, aplastic anaemia, effects of carbamazepine on fetus, indications for using carbamazepine, and related medical conditions. Identify key concepts and enhance your understanding of pharmacology.

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