Pathophysiological Consequences of Edema

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29 Questions

What is the main factor that leads to hypochloremia?

Reduced sodium intake

Which condition is characterized by intracellular hyperhydration specifically in kidney cells?

Hypotonic hyperhydration

What is a common cause of hypertonic hyperhydration?

Increased intake of sodium chloride (NaCl)

Which condition is associated with extracellular sodium loss?

Hypotonic dehydration

What can lead to intracellular dehydration causing browning of cells?

Water loss from diarrhea

What is the main cation in the extracellular fluid (ECF)?


Which hormone is responsible for regulating sodium (Na+) and potassium (K+) balance in the body?


What is the main anion in the intracellular fluid (ICF)?


Which mechanism regulates the total amount of water in the body through decreasing urine production and sweating?

Secretion of ADH

In the context of body fluid distribution, what does ISF stand for?

Interstitial fluid

Which section of fluids depends on factors like age, sex, and obesity?

Intracellular fluid (ICF)

What is the main cause of angiomural type edema?

Increased permeability of the capillary membrane

Which condition is most likely to lead to damage of the lymphatic vessels in the lymphodynamic type edema?

Inflammatory reaction

What are the pathophysiological consequences of edema?

Daily variations in body weight

Which disorder is associated with gravity-independent edema?

Inflammation of lymphatic vessels

What is the clinical consequence of angiomural type edema?

Reduced diuresis

What can lead to obstruction of lymphatic vessels in the lymphodynamic type edema?


What is the main pathophysiological consequence of an increase in extracellular fluid (ECF)?

Overflowing venous vessels

Which condition is associated with a reduction in extracellular fluid (ECF) volume?

Increased skin hydration

What causes passive or venous hyperemia due to impaired drainage of water from the venous system?

Decreased synthesis of albumin

Which pathophysiological type of edema is caused by a decrease in oncotic pressure?

Hemodynamic type

What role does albumin play in maintaining colloid-osmotic plasma pressure?

Maintaining oncotic pressure

Which factor does NOT contribute to passive or venous hyperemia?

Increased hydrostatic pressure

What is the difference between transudate and exudate?

Transudate is low in protein content, while exudate is high in protein content.

Where is the majority of potassium found in the body?

Intracellular fluid

What is the normal serum concentration range for potassium in the body?

3.5-5.5 mmol/L

What are the main functions of potassium in the body?

Maintaining electrolyte balance

In which bodily fluids is potassium found?

Intracellular and extracellular fluid

What is the dominant site of potassium excretion in the body?


Study Notes

Homeostasis of the Internal Environment

  • Maintaining the morphological and functional integrity of the organism requires:
    • Isovolemia (volume constancy)
    • Isoosmia (osmotic pressure constancy)
    • Isoionia (constancy of electrolyte composition)
    • Isohydria (acid-base status)

Distribution of Body Fluids

  • Body fluid is distributed between:
    • Intracellular fluid (ICF)
    • Extracellular fluid (ECF)
  • ECF includes:
    • Interstitial fluid (ISF)
    • Lymphatic system
    • Intravascular fluid
    • Transcellular fluids

Daily Traffic of Fluids in the Organism

  • Daily intake: 2400-3200 ml
  • Daily loss: 2400-3200 ml
  • Sources of fluid intake:
    • Water and other fluids (1400-1800 ml)
    • Water in food (700-1000 ml)
    • Metabolic water (300-400 ml)
  • Sources of fluid loss:
    • Urine (1400-1800 ml)
    • Feces (100 ml)
    • Skin (300-500 ml)
    • Lungs (600-800 ml)

Composition of ECF and ICF

  • ECF:
    • Main cation: Na+
    • Main anion: Cl-
  • ICF:
    • Main cation: K+
    • Main anion: P

Regulation of Water and Electrolyte Metabolism

  • Two mechanisms regulate the total amount of water in the body:
    • Feeling thirsty
    • Secretion of ADH (Vasopressin)
  • Hormonal regulation:
    • Mineralocorticoids (Aldosterone) regulate Na+ and K+ balance in the body

Disorders of Water and Electrolyte Metabolism

  • Causes of hyperhydration:
    • Excess water
    • Excessive use of hypotonic i.v. solutions
    • Psychogenic polydipsia
    • Renal retention of water
    • Inadequate ADH secretion syndrome
  • Causes of dehydration:
    • Water shortage in ECF
    • Reduced Na+ intake
    • Diuretic therapy
    • Extrarenal losses of Na+ (vomiting, diarrhea, suction, burns)

Pathophysiological Consequences

  • Volume increase in ECF:
    • Increase in body weight
    • Increase in pulse pressure
    • Edema
    • Overflowing venous vessels
    • Congestive heart failure
  • Volume reduce in ECF:
    • Reduction of body weight
    • Poorly charged pulse
    • Lowering of pressure
    • Decreased skin hydration
    • Collapsed venous vessels of the neck
    • Tachycardia
    • Decreased diuresis


  • Definition: buildup of fluid in the interstitium
  • Types:
    • Hemodynamic type
    • Oncodynamic type
    • Angiomural type
    • Lymphodynamic type
  • Pathophysiological consequences of edema:
    • Hypoxia and insufficient energy production in cells
    • Tendency to dehydrate
    • Daily variations in body weight
    • Reduction of diuresis and sweating
    • Night urination
    • Morning darkness
    • Feeling bloated

Potassium Metabolism

  • 98% of potassium is in ICF (150-160 mmol/L)
  • Serum concentration: 3.5-5.5 mmol/L
  • Functions:
    • Electrical activity of cells
    • Maintaining the osmolarity of the intracellular fluid
    • Glycogen deposition
    • Acid-base status
  • Regulation of potassium excretion:
    • Filtration
    • Secretion (distal tubules and collecting ducts)
    • Reabsorption (end of collecting ducts)
  • Etiology of hyperkalemia and hypokalemia:
    • Reduced concentration of potassium in the serum and reduced amount of potassium in the body
    • Reduced concentration of potassium in the serum and normal amount of potassium in the body
    • Normal or increased concentration of potassium in the serum, reduced amount of potassium in the body

Explore the pathophysiological consequences of edema, including volume increase in extracellular fluid, increased body weight, pulse pressure changes, edema overflow in venous vessels, heart failure, diuresis variations, and more. Learn about the definition and classification of edema.

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