PSYC 21 | Drug Quiz

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36 Questions

Which type of drugs affect neural communication utilizing opioids?

Direct agonists

What is naloxone (Narcan) used for clinically?

To reverse opiate intoxication or overdose

Which drug is known for producing analgesia, sedation, and appetite stimulation?

Dronabinol

What is the active ingredient in marijuana responsible for its physiological effects?

THC (tetrahydrocannabinol)

What do endocannabinoids act as in the body?

Natural ligands for receptors

Which receptors are responsible for the physiological effects of the active ingredient in marijuana?

Endocannabinoid receptors

What is the most important factor that determines the rate at which a drug reaches sites of action within the brain?

Lipid solubility

Why does an intravenous injection of heroin produce a more intense 'rush' compared to morphine?

Heroin molecules reach the brain faster

What is the blood-brain barrier primarily a barrier for?

Water-soluble molecules

Which factor explains why heroin has a greater abuse potential than morphine?

Lipid solubility and speed of reaching the brain

How does lipid solubility affect the distribution of molecules throughout the brain?

It speeds up distribution

What is the best way to measure the effectiveness of a drug?

By plotting a dose-response curve

What is the relationship between a drug's affinity and the required concentration for effects?

High affinity drugs require low concentrations for effects.

What is the difference between sensitization and tolerance to a drug?

Sensitization is when a drug becomes more effective, while tolerance diminishes effects.

Which best describes the relationship between withdrawal symptoms and the effects of a drug?

Withdrawal symptoms are the opposite of the effects of the drug.

What is physical dependence on a drug?

A person experiencing withdrawal symptoms upon stopping drug use.

What is the definition of placebo?

An inactive substance causing physiological effects.

What is synthetic drugs' relationship with naturally occurring drugs?

Synthetic drugs can have far greater potencies than natural drugs.

Explain the significance of endogenous opioids in neural communication.

Endogenous opioids play a crucial role in modulating pain perception and emotional responses.

Discuss the differences between direct agonists and direct antagonists in the context of opiate receptors.

Direct agonists activate opiate receptors, mimicking the effects of endorphins, while direct antagonists block the receptor activity.

How do synthetic opiates like heroin, methadone, and oxycodone impact neural communication?

Synthetic opiates bind to opiate receptors, altering neural signaling to produce analgesic effects.

Explain the mechanism of action of naloxone (Narcan) in reversing opiate intoxication.

Naloxone acts as an opiate receptor antagonist, displacing the opiates from the receptors and reversing their effects.

Describe the effects of THC (tetrahydrocannabinol) on neural communication and physiological responses.

THC stimulates cannabinoid receptors, leading to analgesia, sedation, and appetite stimulation.

Discuss the significance of endocannabinoids in modulating the physiological effects of marijuana.

Endocannabinoids are natural ligands for cannabinoid receptors, regulating various functions like mood, memory, and appetite.

Explain the difference in lipid solubility between heroin and morphine and how it affects their abuse potential.

Heroin is more lipid-soluble than morphine, allowing it to reach the brain faster and produce a more intense 'rush', contributing to its greater abuse potential.

Discuss the role of lipid solubility in the distribution of molecules throughout the brain and its impact on drug effectiveness.

Lipid-soluble molecules can pass through the cells lining the capillaries in the CNS, allowing for rapid distribution throughout the brain, influencing the drug's effectiveness.

How do endogenous opioids contribute to the physiological effects of drugs on neural communication?

Endogenous opioids play a role in modulating neural communication and can influence the effects of drugs that target opioid receptors.

Explain the relationship between axoplasmic transport and the distribution of drugs in the brain.

Axoplasmic transport plays a role in the movement of drugs within the brain, affecting their distribution and potential effects.

How do synthetic opiates differ from naturally occurring opiates in terms of their effects on the body?

Synthetic opiates are chemically produced substances that mimic the effects of natural opiates but may have differences in potency, duration, or side effects.

Discuss the physiological effects of the active ingredient in marijuana (THC) on the body and its mechanism of action.

THC produces various effects such as analgesia, sedation, and appetite stimulation by interacting with cannabinoid receptors in the brain and body.

Explain the relationship between axoplasmic transport and the distribution of drugs within the brain.

Axoplasmic transport is the movement of neurotransmitters or drugs along the axon of a neuron. It plays a crucial role in the distribution of drugs within the brain by allowing substances to travel from the cell body to the axon terminals.

Describe the role of endogenous opioids in the body and their significance in pharmacology.

Endogenous opioids are naturally occurring peptides that act as neurotransmitters. They play a crucial role in pain modulation and reward pathways, influencing the effects of opioid drugs.

Explain the relationship between opiate receptors and the effects of drugs like heroin on the central nervous system.

Opiate receptors are specific protein molecules in the brain that bind to endogenous opioids and opioid drugs. Drugs like heroin exert their effects by binding to these receptors, leading to analgesia, euphoria, and other central nervous system effects.

Discuss the development and impact of synthetic opiates in pharmacology compared to naturally occurring opiates.

Synthetic opiates are artificially produced drugs that often have higher potencies than naturally occurring opiates. They have revolutionized pain management but also come with a higher risk of abuse and overdose.

Explain how THC, the active ingredient in marijuana, produces its physiological effects in the body.

THC acts on cannabinoid receptors in the brain, altering neurotransmitter release and affecting various brain functions. This interaction leads to the physiological and psychological effects associated with marijuana use.

Discuss the concept of sensitization in relation to drug effects and how it differs from tolerance.

Sensitization is a phenomenon where a drug becomes more effective with repeated use, leading to an increased response. This contrasts with tolerance, where the body adapts to a drug, requiring higher doses to achieve the same effect.

Test your knowledge on opiate receptors and drugs that affect neural communication. Learn about the different types of opiate receptors such as μ (mu), δ (delta), and Κ (kappa), as well as the drugs like direct agonists and antagonists used in pharmacology.

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