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NURS 1220 – Urinary System Physiology Theory Exam Review

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What determines the Effective Filtration Pressure in the glomerular filtration process?

Glomerular Hydrostatic Pressure (GHP) and Capsular Colloid Osmotic Pressure (CCOP)

What is one of the factors that can affect Glomerular Filtration Rate (GFR)?

Changes in blood pressure

Which cells release renin and trigger the Renin-Angiotensin-Aldosterone System (RAAS)?

Macula densa cells

What substances are primarily reabsorbed in the Proximal Convoluted Tubule (PCT)?

Glucose and amino acids

Which hormones control the reabsorption of water, sodium, and bicarbonate in the Distal Convoluted Tubule (DCT) and Collecting Duct?

Antidiuretic hormone (ADH) and aldosterone

Which mechanism is responsible for creating the medullary osmotic gradient in the kidney?

Countercurrent multiplier

What is regulated by the Countercurrent Exchanger to maintain the medullary osmotic gradient?

$ ext{Na}^{+}$ reabsorption

'Renal Clearance' primarily refers to the ability of the kidneys to:

$ ext{Urea}$ excretion

What is the function of the accessory glands in the male reproductive system?

Secretion of seminal fluid components

Which structure is involved in the neural control of the sexual response in males?

Ejaculatory duct

What is the primary function of the ovaries in the female reproductive system?

Production of estrogen and progesterone

Which structure is involved in pregnancy maintenance and hormone production in females?

Corpus luteum

In genetics, what does the term 'allele' refer to?

A specific form of a gene located on a chromosome

What is the outcome of incomplete dominance in genetic inheritance?

Both alleles are equally expressed, resulting in a blend

Which factor determines an individual's blood group in multiple-allele inheritance?

'Multiple' alleles interacting to determine blood type

'Polygenic' vs. 'complex' inheritance primarily differs in which aspect?

'Complex' traits exhibit continuous variation, while 'polygenic' traits do not

'XY vs. XX' karyotypes are commonly associated with determining which genetic factor?

'Haploid' vs. 'diploid' chromosome numbers

What is the primary hormone responsible for regulating water gain by acting on the kidneys?

Renin

Which of the following is a common symptom associated with the activation of thirst centers in the body for regulating water gain?

Dry mouth

What is a possible cause of hyponatremia, a condition characterized by low sodium levels in the blood?

Water intoxication

Which of the following hormones plays a crucial role in regulating potassium levels in the body?

Aldosterone

In respiratory compensation, how does the body regulate pH during acidosis?

By hyperventilating to decrease CO2 levels in the blood

Which of these buffer systems plays a significant role in maintaining pH balance within cells?

Protein buffer system

What type of fluid imbalance is characterized by swelling due to excess fluid in the interstitial spaces?

Edema

Which mechanism primarily creates the medullary osmotic gradient in the kidney?

Passive diffusion of urea and water

What condition is characterized by low sodium levels in the blood and can be caused by excessive water intake?

Hyponatremia

What process is responsible for swelling in the interstitial spaces due to excess fluid?

Edema

Which hormone primarily regulates water gain by acting on the kidneys and promoting water reabsorption?

Antidiuretic Hormone (ADH)

What is a common symptom associated with the activation of osmoreceptors in the body for regulating water balance?

Increased thirst

What is the primary function of Buffer systems like protein, phosphate, and carbonic acid/bicarbonate in the human body?

Maintaining pH balance

What is one of the main factors controlled by three hormones - renin, aldosterone, and ADH - to maintain sodium levels in the body?

Blood volume

How does respiratory compensation regulate pH during acidosis?

By retaining carbon dioxide

What structures are part of the male reproductive system accessory glands?

Seminal vesicles, prostate gland, bulbourethral gland

What is the primary hormone responsible for regulating potassium levels in the body?

Aldosterone

Which of the following structures is involved in pregnancy maintenance and hormone production in females?

Ovaries

What is the difference between genotype and phenotype?

Genotype refers to inherited genes, while phenotype refers to observable traits.

Which factor determines an individual's blood group in multiple-allele inheritance?

ABO gene

What is the outcome of incomplete dominance in genetic inheritance?

A new phenotype is produced that is a blend of the parental phenotypes.

Which structures make up the interstitial cells in males?

Testes, epididymis, vas deferens

What represents a haploid cell number?

23 chromosomes

What does polygenic inheritance primarily involve?

Multiple genes each contributing to a different trait.

What determines the Glomerular Filtration Rate (GFR) of the kidneys?

Afferent and efferent arteriole diameter

Which cells are responsible for releasing renin triggering the Renin-Angiotensin-Aldosterone System (RAAS)?

Macula densa cells

What do the Tubular Reabsorption processes primarily involve in the Proximal Convoluted Tubule (PCT)?

Organic nutrients and water-soluble vitamins

Which mechanism contributes to the regulation of Glomerular Filtration Rate (GFR) by responding to sodium chloride levels in the distal nephron?

Tubuloglomerular Feedback

Which process involves the control of water, sodium, and bicarbonate reabsorption in the DCT and Collecting Duct?

Tubular Reabsorption

What is the primary function of the Countercurrent Exchanger in renal physiology?

Creating medullary osmotic gradient

What mechanism contributes to the regulation of water loss in the body through sweating, exhalation, and urinary salts?

Aldosterone effects

Which hormone primarily controls the reabsorption of bicarbonate ions in the kidneys to regulate pH balance?

ANH

In the regulation of sodium levels, what factor distinguishes hypo- from hypernatremia?

Hormonal control mechanisms

Which condition is characterized by an excess of potassium in the blood, posing risks to cardiac function?

Hypernatremia

What is the primary role of buffer systems like protein, phosphate, and carbonic acid/bicarbonate in the human body?

Maintenance of pH balance

What plays a significant role in creating the medullary osmotic gradient in the kidney to facilitate water reabsorption?

Countercurrent mechanisms

What is the primary function of the bulbourethral gland in the male reproductive system?

Secretion of a lubricating fluid for semen

In the male reproductive system, what is the function of the vas deferens?

Contraction to propel sperm during ejaculation

What is the role of corpus luteum in the female reproductive system?

Secretion of progesterone to support early pregnancy

Which structure in the female reproductive system is primarily involved in the transport of oocytes from the ovaries to the uterus?

Uterine tubes

What neural control mechanism plays a significant role in the sexual response in both males and females?

Sympathetic nervous system activation

Which gland produces a significant portion of the seminal fluid in males?

Seminal vesicles

What is the main factor that determines Effective Filtration Pressure in the glomerular filtration process?

Glomerular Filtration Rate (GFR)

Which cells release renin, triggering the Renin-Angiotensin-Aldosterone System (RAAS) in response to low blood pressure?

Juxtaglomerular cells

What is the primary role of the Countercurrent Multiplier in the kidney physiology?

Creating a medullary osmotic gradient

Which hormone is responsible for controlling water reabsorption in the DCT and Collecting Duct by promoting sodium retention?

Aldosterone

In renal physiology, what is the primary function of the Tubuloglomerular Feedback mechanism?

Adjusting glomerular filtration rate

What type of substances are primarily secreted in the Distal Convoluted Tubule (DCT) and Collecting Duct?

Urea and ammonium ions

Study Notes

Urinary System Physiology

  • Glomerular filtration: occurs in the renal corpuscle, filtration membrane filters substances
  • Pressure gradients: GHP, CCOP, CHP, GCOP determine Effective Filtration Pressure (EFP)
  • Glomerular Filtration Rate (GFR): affected by EFP, afferent/efferent arteriole diameter, and blood pressure
  • Regulation of GFR: 2 autoregulatory mechanisms - Myogenic mechanism and Tubuloglomerular Feedback
  • Macula densa cells and Juxtaglomerular cells release renin, triggering RAAS, which can be blocked

Tubular Reabsorption and Secretion

  • PCT: reabsorbs water, ions, urea, organic nutrients, and water-soluble vitamins

  • Nephron loop: descending and ascending properties, reabsorbs water and ions

  • DCT and Collecting duct: reabsorbs water, sodium, and bicarbonate, controlled by ADH, aldosterone, and ANH

  • Transport maximum: a limit to the amount of substances reabsorbed

  • PCT: secretes drugs and H+

  • Nephron loop: secretes urea

  • DCT and Collecting duct: secretes H+, K+, and ammonium ions

Regulating Urine Concentration

  • Countercurrent multiplier: creates medullary osmotic gradient
  • Recycling of urea: creates medullary osmotic gradient
  • Countercurrent exchanger: maintains medullary osmotic gradient

Urine Composition and Renal Clearance

  • Urine composition: regulated by the kidneys
  • Renal clearance: a measure of the kidney's ability to remove substances from the blood
  • Micturition reflex: involves external and internal sphincters, and can be affected by incontinence

Fluid, Electrolyte, and Acid-Base Homeostasis

  • Body fluid compartments: relative volumes of extracellular and intracellular fluids
  • Fluid balance: regulated by thirst centers, dry mouth, osmoreceptors, and decreased blood pressure
  • Fluid imbalance: edema and hypovolemia
  • Sodium regulation: controlled by 3 hormones, with hypo- and hypernatremia as imbalances
  • Potassium regulation: controlled by aldosterone, with hyperkalemia as an imbalance
  • pH scale: Acidosis vs. Alkalosis
  • Buffer systems: protein, phosphate, and carbonic acid/bicarbonate
  • Respiratory compensation: regulates pH through hyper- and hypoventilation
  • Renal compensation: regulates pH through H+ and bicarbonate ion reabsorption and secretion
  • Acid-base imbalances: metabolic acidosis/alkalosis, respiratory acidosis/alkalosis

Genital Systems

  • Assigned male: testes location, structure, and function, spermatogenesis, and accessory glands
  • Assigned female: ovaries location, structure, and function, oogenesis, and accessory glands
  • Perineum: urogenital and anal triangles
  • Ovaries: location, structure, and function
  • Uterine tubes, uterus, vagina, and vulva: structure and function
  • Mammary glands: structure and function
  • Neural control of sexual response: regulated by hormones and neurotransmitters

Inheritance

  • Haploid, diploid, and zygote: chromosome number and definitions
  • Inheritance, genetics, genome, and gene: definitions and concepts
  • Nucleic acid structure: DNA, nucleotides, complementary base pairing, antiparallel, and packing
  • Allele vs. mutation: PKU - dominant vs. recessive trait
  • Genotype vs. phenotype: concepts and examples
  • Incomplete dominance: sickle cell anemia
  • Multiple-allele inheritance: ABO blood groups
  • Complex inheritance: polygenic vs. complex - height
  • Karyotypes: XY vs. XX
  • Sex-linked inheritance: red/green colour blindness

Prepare for your NURS 1220 final theory exam with a summary of new content focusing on the urinary system physiology. Topics include glomerular filtration, renal corpuscle, pressure gradients, regulation of Glomerular Filtration Rate (GFR), and autoregulatory mechanisms.

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