Nurs 8022 Exam 2 Practice (used study guide)

VersatileCatharsis avatar
VersatileCatharsis
·
·
Download

Start Quiz

Study Flashcards

194 Questions

What is the most common type of anemia?

Microcytic-hypochromic anemia

Which factor is associated with the highest risk for iron deficient anemia?

Infants

What is the most sensitive test for iron deficient anemia (IDA)?

Ferritin test

Which test measures the available transferrin that is left unbound to iron?

Total iron binding capacity (TIBC) test

What is a diagnostic manifestation of iron deficient anemia (IDA)?

Low serum iron, high TIBC

What are the clinical manifestations of moderate iron deficient anemia (IDA)?

Palpitations, dyspnea, exercise intolerance

What is the main function of albumins in the plasma?

Control plasma oncotic pressure

What are the primary components of plasma proteins?

Albumins and globulins

Which organ is responsible for fetal hematopoiesis and filtering the blood?

Spleen

What is the primary role of thrombocytes in the blood?

Blood clotting

What is the function of pluripotent cells in the bone marrow?

Differentiate into major blood cells

Why are erythrocytes able to return to their normal shape after squeezing through microcirculation?

They have a reversible deformity

Where are lymphocytes and mononuclear phagocytes primarily produced?

Bone marrow

What is the most common cause of iron deficient anemia (IDA)?

Chronic parasite infestations

Which test is used to indirectly measure the saturation of transferrin with iron?

Total iron binding capacity (TIBC)

What is the primary site where ferritin, a protein that stores iron, is produced?

Intestines

Which clinical manifestation is likely to be observed in a patient with moderate iron deficient anemia (IDA)?

Pallor and koilonychia

What diagnostic manifestation is typically observed in iron deficient anemia (IDA) when assessing the transferrin saturation indirectly?

Low MCV and low MCH

Which factor presents a good sign of malignancy for postmenopausal women and men in the context of iron deficient anemia (IDA)?

Elevated ferritin levels

What is the primary stimulus for the conversion of yellow bone marrow to hematopoietic red marrow?

Erythropoietin

Which organ primarily produces erythropoietin in the body?

Kidney

What is the function of reticulocytes in erythropoiesis?

Promoting release of mature erythrocytes

What is the primary role of heme in the erythrocyte?

Carrying oxygen

Which enzyme deficiency results in RBC damage and death due to the lack of glycolysis?

Pyruvate kinase

What is the primary cause of hereditary hemolysis?

Immune mechanisms

What is the term for the presence of RBCs in various shapes?

Poikilocytosis

What are the classic clinical manifestations of reduced oxygen carrying capacity?

Fatigue, weakness, dyspnea

What lab value is related to the size of red blood cells?

MCV: Mean Corpuscular Volume

What does MCH (Mean Corpuscular Hemoglobin) measure?

Hemoglobin content in each red blood cell

Which condition may affect the ability of hemoglobin to carry and transport oxygen?

Sickle cell disease

What does an increased reticulocyte count indicate?

Accelerated RBC production

What is the primary function of thrombocytes in the blood?

Controlling blood coagulation

What is the main function of albumins in the plasma?

Maintaining oncotic pressure

Why do erythrocytes have a limited life span of 120 days?

They are cleared by the spleen and replaced with new cells

What is the primary role of pluripotent cells in the bone marrow?

Differentiating into major blood cells

Which organ is the largest secondary lymphoid organ?

Spleen

What is the function of lipoproteins in plasma?

Transporting triglycerides and cholesterol

Why are thrombocytes incapable of mitotic division?

They lack a nucleus or DNA

What is the primary function of leukocytes in the blood?

Defending the body against infection

How do erythrocytes enable torpedo shape to squeeze through microcirculation?

Through reversible deformity

Where does hematopoiesis primarily occur in adults?

Bone marrow

What is the primary fluid component of blood plasma?

Water

What is the primary function of primary lymphoid organs?

Differentiation and proliferation of lymphocytes and mononuclear phagocytes

Which diagnostic manifestation is typically observed in iron deficient anemia (IDA) when assessing the total iron binding capacity (TIBC)?

High TIBC

What is the primary cause of hereditary hemolysis?

Enzyme deficiency in glycolysis

Which factor is associated with the highest risk for iron deficient anemia?

Menstruation

What does a low serum iron level and high TIBC indicate in iron deficient anemia (IDA)?

Functional iron deficiency

Why are pica and koilonychia considered as clinical manifestations of moderate iron deficient anemia (IDA)?

Resulting from chronic iron deficiency

What is the primary stimulus for the conversion of yellow bone marrow to hematopoietic red marrow?

Erythropoietin

What enzyme deficiency results in RBC damage and death due to the lack of glycolysis?

Pyruvate kinase

Which organ primarily produces erythropoietin in the body?

Kidney

What is the function of reticulocytes in erythropoiesis?

Indicate whether new RBCs are being produced

Why are thrombocytes incapable of mitotic division?

They lack a nucleus

What is the primary role of heme in the erythrocyte?

Carry oxygen

What lab value is related to the size of red blood cells?

Mean Corpuscular Volume

What is the most common type of anemia associated with hereditary hemolysis?

Sickle cell disease

What test measures the available transferrin that is left unbound to iron?

Total iron-binding capacity (TIBC)

What does an increased reticulocyte count indicate?

High RBC production

Where does hematopoiesis primarily occur in adults?

Bone marrow

What enzyme is involved in protecting the RBC against oxidative stress?

Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD)

What is the primary function of plasma proteins in blood?

To regulate fluids and solutes through circulation

What is the role of thrombocytes in the blood?

To initiate blood coagulation and control bleeding

Where does hematopoiesis primarily occur in adults?

Bone marrow

What is the main function of pluripotent cells in the bone marrow?

To differentiate into major blood cells

What is the primary role of leukocytes in the blood?

To defend the body against infection

What is the significant function of plasma in blood?

Maintain osmolarity and acid-base balance

What is the primary function of primary lymphoid organs?

Proliferation and function of lymphocytes and mononuclear phagocytes

What lab value is related to the size of red blood cells?

Mean Corpuscular Volume (MCV)

What is the function of lipoproteins in plasma?

Carry triglycerides, cholesterol, and fatty acids

What is the main function of serum derived from plasma?

Remove fibrinogen and other clotting factors

Which type of cells have membrane-bound granules in the cytoplasm and are capable of destroying microorganisms?

Neutrophils

What is the primary role of chemokines in the immune system?

Attracting leukocytes to the site of inflammation

What is the main function of interferon in the immune system?

Preventing viruses from infecting healthy cells

What are the systemic manifestations of the inflammatory response?

Fever, leukocytosis, and increased levels in circulating plasma proteins

Which of the following biochemicals is responsible for vasoconstriction and platelet activation?

ADP

What is the primary function of Von Willebrand Factor (vWF) in the clotting process?

Facilitation of platelet adhesion at sites of vascular injury

Which pathway is activated in response to damage to the inside of blood vessels or blood?

Intrinsic pathway

What is the impact of protein C deficiency in the clotting system?

Promotion of excessive clotting

What is the consequence of Factor V Leiden mutation?

Inability to inactivate factor V by protein C

Which molecule serves as a first line of defense in innate immunity by being toxic to microorganisms?

Antimicrobial peptides

Which cells play a role in the second line of defense through their role in the inflammatory response?

Granulocytes

What is the primary function of natural killer (NK) cells in innate immunity?

Recognition and elimination of infected cells

What is the role of thromboxane A2 in platelet activation?

Stimulates activation of new platelets

Which pathway is most dominant and is activated when tissue factor is released by damaged endothelial cells?

Extrinsic pathway

What is the consequence of protein S deficiency in the clotting system?

Impaired function/activity of protein S and increased risk of venous thrombosis

What are the cardinal signs of inflammation?

Redness, heat, swelling, pain

Which plasma protein system forms a clot, prevents the spread of infection, and provides a framework for repair and healing?

Coagulation system

Which type of cells produce memory cells that are able to respond more rapidly and efficiently upon subsequent exposure to the same antigen?

B cells

What is the precise recognition portion on an antigen called?

Antigenic determinant (epitope)

Which plasma protein system functions in anaphylaxis, mast cell degranulation, leukocyte chemotaxis, and cell lysis?

Complement system

Which cell type predominantly responds to neutrophil chemotactic factor released during mast cell degranulation?

Neutrophils

Which component of the plasma proteins provides a biochemical barrier against invading pathogens and promotes wound healing?

Complement system

Which cell type is primarily responsible for connecting the innate and adaptive immune responses?

Dendritic cells

What is the function of antibodies/immunoglobulins produced by plasma cells?

Provide barrier against invading pathogens

Which cellular mediator is contained in tissue close to vessels and acts as an activator of inflammation?

Mast cells

What is the primary role of monocytes and macrophages in the late inflammatory response?

Promote wound healing

Which receptor on smooth muscle cells causes bronchoconstriction upon activation?

H1 receptor

Which type of cells are involved in both inflammatory and immune functions, have membrane-bound granules in the cytoplasm, and migrate through vessel walls to sites where they are needed?

Neutrophils

Which proteins act directly on the hypothalamus to cause fever as part of the systemic manifestations of inflammation?

Endogenous pyrogens

Which plasma proteins are involved in attracting leukocytes to the site of inflammation as part of the local manifestations of inflammation?

Chemokines

Which type of immune response do interleukins enhance?

Adaptive immune response

What is the primary function of Von Willebrand factor (vWF) in the clotting process?

Promotes platelet aggregation

What is the consequence of protein C deficiency in the clotting system?

Venous clotting tendency

Which pathway is activated when tissue factor (tissue thromboplastin) is released by damaged endothelial cells?

Extrinsic pathway

What is the role of Factor V Leiden in the clotting process?

Promotion of venous clotting

Which plasma protein system functions in anaphylaxis, mast cell degranulation, leukocyte chemotaxis, and cell lysis?

Complement system

What cellular mediator is contained in tissue close to vessels and acts as an activator of inflammation?

Kinins

What is the primary role of antibodies/immunoglobulins produced by plasma cells?

Neutralization of pathogens

What is the primary function of natural killer (NK) cells in innate immunity?

Lysis of virus-infected cells

What enzyme deficiency results in RBC damage and death due to the lack of glycolysis?

G6PD deficiency

What is the primary function of albumins in the plasma?

Hormone transport

What are the primary components released by platelet granules during activation?

Histamine, serotonin, thromboxane A2, clotting factors

What is the primary role of neutrophils in the early inflammatory response?

Phagocytosis of bacteria and cellular debris

Which plasma protein system functions to destroy pathogens directly, prevent injury to host tissue, and guarantee activation when needed?

Complement system

What is the function of antigenic determinant (epitope) on an antigen?

It binds to antibodies or receptors on T and B cells

Which cellular mediator is an activator of inflammation and is contained in tissue close to blood vessels?

Mast cells

What is the primary function of immunoglobulins (antibodies) produced by plasma cells?

Host protection

Which type of blood vessel does histamine cause temporary rapid constriction and dilation of?

Large blood vessels and post capillary venules

What is the primary function of T cells in the immune response?

Direct killing of target cells

What do memory cells produced by B and T cells enable the body to do more rapidly and efficiently upon subsequent exposure to the same antigen?

Respond with an adaptive immune response

What is the role of plasma proteins in providing a biochemical barrier against invading pathogens?

Destroy pathogens directly

What is the primary function of monocytes and macrophages in the late inflammatory response?

Act as phagocytes and promote wound healing

What is the primary role of bradykinin in the kinin system?

Dilation of blood vessels and pain

Which component influences the degree of immunogenicity of an antigen by being foreign to the host, appropriate size, adequate chemical complexity, and present in sufficient quantity?

Immunogenicity factor

What is the role of chemokines in the immune system?

Promote leukocyte migration to the site of inflammation

Which type of cells are involved in both inflammatory and immune functions, have membrane-bound granules in the cytoplasm, and migrate through vessel walls to sites where they are needed?

Eosinophils

What is the primary function of interferon in the immune system?

Prevents viruses from infecting healthy cells

What are the systemic manifestations of the inflammatory response?

Fever, leukocytosis, increased levels in circulating plasma proteins

Which of the following is a cardinal sign of inflammation?

Swelling

Which plasma protein system functions in anaphylaxis, mast cell degranulation, leukocyte chemotaxis, and cell lysis?

Complement system

Which type of cells are responsible for humoral immunity mediated by circulating antibodies?

Plasma cells

Which plasma protein system provides a biochemical barrier against invading pathogens and promotes wound healing?

Coagulation system

What is the primary role of monocytes and macrophages in the late inflammatory response?

Wound healing promotion

Which plasma protein system functions to destroy pathogens directly and is involved in leukocyte chemotaxis?

Complement system

Which cells are involved in activation of the adaptive immune response?

Dendritic cells

What is the primary function of T cells in the immune response?

Killing target cells directly

What is the function of immunoglobulins (antibodies) in the immune system?

Destroying pathogens directly

What do antigenic determinants (epitopes) represent on an antigen?

Precise recognition portion on antigen

Which cells are primarily responsible for histamine release during inflammation?

Mast cells

What is the main function of complement system in the immune response?

Direct destruction of pathogens

Which biochemical released by platelet granules stimulates activation of new platelets and causes vasoconstriction?

Thromboxane A2

What is the function of Von Willebrand Factor (vWF) in the clotting process?

Anchors endothelial cells to collagen at sites of vascular injury for normal platelet adhesion

Which molecule serves as a check and balance in the clotting system by breaking down clotting factors to prevent excessive clotting?

Protein C

What is the consequence of Von Willebrand's disease?

Decreased ability for platelets to bind to vessel wall

What is the primary consequence of protein S deficiency in the clotting system?

Increased risk of venous thrombosis

What is the main consequence of Factor V Leiden mutation?

Increased risk of venous thrombosis

Which pathway is MOST DOMINANT and is activated when tissue factor is released by damaged endothelial cells?

Extrinsic pathway

What serves as the first line of defense in innate immunity through physical barriers like skin and epithelial cell linings, and antimicrobial peptides toxic to microorganisms?

Lysosome

Which type of leukemia is most common in children under the age of 15?

Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL)

Which type of leukemia is associated with CNS involvement, increased LDH, and rapid leukemic cell proliferation?

Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL)

Which type of leukemia can transform to acute leukemia in a blast crisis characterized by accelerated blast and promyelocyte production?

Chronic myeloid leukemia (CML)

Which type of leukemia is the most common in the western world and is least aggressive?

Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL)

What is the microorganism responsible for causing rubella?

Togaviridae virus

Which microorganism is responsible for causing West Nile Virus?

flaviviridae

What is the primary microorganism responsible for causing Rocky Mountain spotted fever?

Rickettsia rickettsii

Which microorganism is responsible for causing tinea (ringworm)?

dermatophyte

What is the primary microorganism responsible for causing malaria?

Plasmodium vivax

Which microorganism is responsible for causing toxoplasmosis?

Toxoplasma gondii

What is the primary feature of Hodgkin's lymphoma?

Normocytic normochromic anemia

Which type of leukemia is most common in children under the age of 15 and is very responsive to therapy?

Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL)

Which leukemia type is normally discovered on routine complete blood count (CVC) and is most common in individuals over 60 years old?

Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL)

Which leukemia type is associated with the Philadelphia chromosome translocation t(9,22) and can transform to acute leukemia with blast crisis?

Chronic myeloid leukemia (CML)

Which type of leukemia has the CM feature of pancytopenia, recurrent infections, splenomegaly, and hepatomegaly as part of its clinical presentation?

Acute myeloid leukemia (AML)

Which type of leukemia is most common in children under the age of 15 and is very responsive to therapy?

Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL)

Which type of leukemia is normally discovered on routine complete blood count (CVC) and is most common in individuals over 60 years old?

Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL)

Which type of leukemia has CNS involvement associated with B cell phenotype, increased LDH, and rapid leukemic cell proliferation?

Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL)

Which type of leukemia can transform to acute leukemia with blast crisis and is associated with the Philadelphia chromosome translocation t(9,22)?

Chronic myeloid leukemia (CML)

Which virus is responsible for causing mumps?

Paramyxovirus

What is the primary microorganism responsible for causing rubella (German measles)?

Rubella virus – RNA virus; togaviridae family

Which disease is characterized by a fever and generalized pruritic vesicular rash?

Varicella

What microorganism is responsible for causing Lyme disease?

Borrelia burgdorferi

Which microorganism is responsible for pertussis, also known as 'whooping cough'?

Bordetella pertussis

What is the primary microorganism responsible for causing tinea (ringworm)?

Candida albicans

Which microorganism is responsible for causing parasitic infection malaria?

Anopheles' mosquito

What microorganism is responsible for causing toxoplasmosis?

Toxoplasma gondii

What type of plasma cell disorder is characterized by neoplastic proliferation of single plasma cell line and monoclonal immunoglobulin production?

Multiple myeloma

What cancer of the lymphatic system is associated with Ann Arbor staging and lymphadenopathy?

Hodgkin's lymphoma

What group of tumors that occur with malignant transformation and growth of B or T lymphocytes or their precursors in the lymphatic system make up approximately 85% of all cases?

Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma

Which type of leukemia is most common in children under age 15 and is very responsive to therapy?

Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL)

Which type of leukemia is associated with translocation of t(9,22) - Philadelphia chromosome and shorter survival with decreased response to treatment?

Chronic myeloid leukemia (CML)

Which leukemia type is normally asymptomatic and discovered on routine complete blood count (CVC), and is most common in individuals over 60 years old?

Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL)

Which type of leukemia can transform to acute leukemia in blast crisis characterized by accelerated blast and promyelocyte production?

Chronic myeloid leukemia (CML)

Which virus is responsible for causing German measles?

Rubella virus

What is the primary microorganism responsible for causing Rocky Mountain spotted fever?

Rickettsia rickettsii

What is the microorganism responsible for causing tinea or ringworm?

Candida albicans

Which microorganism is responsible for causing malaria?

Anopheles mosquito

Which microorganism is responsible for causing parasitic infection toxoplasmosis?

Toxoplasma gondii

Which microorganism is responsible for causing West Nile Virus?

Arbovirus

What microorganism is responsible for causing pertussis, also known as 'whooping cough'?

'Bordetella pertussis'

Which microorganism is responsible for causing Smallpox?

'Orthopoxvirus'

'Leukemias' are characterized by neoplastic proliferation of abnormal white blood cells. Which type of leukemia involves lymphocytes?

'Lymphocytic leukemia'

'Hodgkin's lymphoma' is a cancer of the lymphatic system. What staging system is commonly used to stage Hodgkin's lymphoma?

'Ann Arbor staging'

What microorganism is responsible for causing Roseola?

Herpes virus - HHV-6 and HHV-7

Which microorganism causes scarlet fever?

Group A hemolytic streptococcus

Study Notes

mix of medium and hard questions. 197 questions total

Make Your Own Quizzes and Flashcards

Convert your notes into interactive study material.

Get started for free

More Quizzes Like This

Blood Functions and Composition Quiz
10 questions
Blood Composition and Functions Quiz
10 questions
Blood Composition and Functions Quiz
5 questions
Use Quizgecko on...
Browser
Browser