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Nose & Paranasal Sinuses Anatomy Quiz

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80 Questions

What is the primary function of the nose in relation to breathing?

To warm and humidify inspired air

What type of epithelium lines the nasal cavity?

Pseudostratified epithelium

Which of the following bones forms the boundary of the nasal cavity?

Frontal, maxilla, and nasal bones

What is the function of the conchae in the nasal cavity?

Not mentioned in the text

What is the source of the blood supply to the nose?

Both internal and external carotid arteries

What is the purpose of the nasal septum?

To separate the two sides of the nasal cavity

What is the relationship between the paranasal sinuses and the nasal cavity?

They are connected through the lateral wall

What is the significance of the nerve supply to the paranasal sinuses?

It causes 'referred' pain

What is the origin of the general sensory supply to the nose?

branches of the ophthalmic and maxillary divisions of the trigeminal nerve

What separates the left and right nasal cavities?

The nasal septum

What is the function of the olfactory region?

To detect odors and smells

What is the name of the three large elevations that protrude from the lateral wall of the nasal cavity?

Conchae

What drains into the lateral walls of the nasal cavity?

The paranasal sinuses and the nasolacrimal duct

What is the function of the nasal cavity?

To warm and humidify the air we breathe

What is the name of the foramen that connects the nasal cavity to the pterygopalatine fossa?

The sphenopalatine foramen

What is the purpose of studying the paranasal sinuses?

To understand the relationship between the nasal cavity and the sinuses

Which nerve supplies the frontal sinus?

Ophthalmic nerve

What is the term for inflammation of the paranasal sinuses?

Sinusitis

Why can maxillary sinus infections cause toothache?

Because the superior alveolar nerves pass through the maxillary sinus

What is the term for when more than one sinus is affected by infection?

Pansinusitis

How do infections of the upper respiratory tract spread to the paranasal sinuses?

Through the nasal cavity

Why can infection of the maxillary sinus spread to the upper teeth?

Because the alveolar process of the upper molar teeth can be very close to the floor of the maxillary sinus cavity

What is the name of the tube that connects the middle ear and upper respiratory tract?

Auditory tube

What is the result of infection of the auditory tube?

Diminished hearing

What is the primary function of the turbinates?

To warm and humidify the air

Where does the ostia for the maxillary sinus open?

In the middle meatus

Why is the maxillary sinus most likely to be infected?

Because its ostia are located near the floor of the nasal cavity

What type of epithelial lining is found in the respiratory region of the nasal cavity?

Pseudostratified ciliated

Which structure marks the opening of the frontal, maxillary, and anterior ethmoidal sinuses in the nasal cavity?

Semilunar hiatus

Which cranial bone does the cribriform plate belong to?

Ethmoid

Which bone is an unpaired bone of the nasal septum?

Ethmoid

Which of the following is the largest of the paranasal sinuses?

Maxillary

Which facial bone forms the posterior aspect of the nasal septum?

Vomer

What is the most common cause of nasal fractures?

Blunt trauma

Which paranasal sinus provides access to the pituitary gland?

Sphenoid sinus

What is the most common cause of epistaxis in a 22-year-old man?

Facial injury

Which type of injury is most likely to cause a nasal fracture?

Blunt trauma

What is the most common location for nasal fractures?

Nasal bone

What is the primary surgical approach to access the pituitary gland?

Transsphenoidal approach

What is the most common symptom of a pituitary adenoma?

Visual disturbances

What is the main function of the nasal cavity?

To warm and humidify inspired air

What is the location of the olfactory region in the nasal cavity?

In the most superior part of the cavity space, lined by olfactory epithelium

What is the function of the nasal cavity?

To filter, warm, and humidify the air we breathe

Which bone forms the boundary of the nasal cavity?

All of the above

What is the function of the conchae in the nasal cavity?

To trap pathogens and particulates

What is the purpose of the conchae in the nasal cavity?

To warm and humidify the air we breathe

What is the source of the blood supply to the nose?

Ophthalmic, maxillary, and facial arteries

What is the significance of the nasal septum?

It separates the left and right nasal cavities

What is the name of the foramen that connects the nasal cavity to the pterygopalatine fossa?

Sphenopalatine foramen

What is the structure that separates the left and right nasal cavities?

Nasal septum

What is the origin of the special sensory supply to the nose?

From the olfactory nerve

What is the relationship between the paranasal sinuses and the nasal cavity?

The paranasal sinuses drain into the nasal cavity

What is the relationship between the nasal cavity and the paranasal sinuses?

The paranasal sinuses drain into the nasal cavity

What type of epithelium lines the nasal cavity?

Pseudostratified epithelium

What is the purpose of studying the nasal cavity and paranasal sinuses?

To understand the anatomy of the respiratory system

What is the function of the nasal cavity in relation to the lacrimal duct?

It clears the lacrimal duct

What is the nerve supply of the ethmoidal and sphenoidal sinuses?

Both maxillary and ophthalmic nerves

Why can sinusitis cause pain and swelling?

As a result of the infection spreading from the upper respiratory tract

What is the significance of the alveolar process of the upper molar teeth being close to the floor of the maxillary sinus cavity?

It increases the risk of infection spreading between the two

What is the result of infection of the auditory tube?

Diminished hearing and swelling of the mucous linings

What is the primary function of the paranasal sinuses?

To reduce the weight of the skull

What is the path by which infection can spread between the middle ear and upper respiratory tract?

The auditory tube

What is the nerve that is affected by the swelling and direct pressure of the maxillary sinus?

Superior alveolar nerve

What type of epithelium lines the paranasal sinuses?

Pseudostratified columnar epithelium

Why is the maxillary sinus at risk of infection?

Due to the proximity of the alveolar process of the upper molar teeth

Which artery supplies the frontal sinus?

Ophthalmic artery

What is the term for the openings that connect the paranasal sinuses to the nasal cavity?

Ostia

What is the significance of the connection between the paranasal sinuses and the nasal cavity?

It provides a path for infection to spread between the two

Which nerve supplies the maxillary sinuses?

Maxillary nerve

What is the structure that marks the opening of the frontal, maxillary, and anterior ethmoidal sinuses?

Middle meatus

What is the primary blood supply to the nasal cavity?

Maxillary artery

What is the term for the process by which the paranasal sinuses form?

Intrinsic growth and invasion of bone

What is the function of the turbinates?

To warm and humidify the air we breathe

Which cranial bone does the cribriform plate belong to?

Ethmoid

Which of the following bones makes up the nasal septum?

All of the above

What is the epithelial lining of the respiratory region of the nasal cavity?

Pseudostratified ciliated columnar

Which structure marks the opening of the frontal, maxillary, and anterior ethmoidal sinuses?

Semilunar hiatus

What is the relationship between the paranasal sinuses and the nasal cavity?

The paranasal sinuses are connected to the nasal cavity

Why is the maxillary sinus most likely to be infected?

Because of its proximity to the nose

Which two bones make up most of the nasal septum?

Maxillary and palatine

Study Notes

The Nose

  • Located inferiorly and medially to the eyes
  • Functions:
    • Breathing
    • Warming and humidifying inspired air
    • Olfaction (smell)
    • Removing/trapping pathogens and particulates
    • Draining and clearing sinuses and lacrimal ducts
  • Anatomy:
    • Consists of pseudostratified epithelium with cilia
    • Highly vascular and easily congested
    • Nasal cavity is a complex chamber located posterior to the vestibule and atrium of the nose
  • 3 pairs of bones form the root of the nose:
    • Frontal (nasal process)
    • Maxilla (frontal process)
    • Nasal
  • 3 major cartilages form the dorsum and apex of the nose:
    • Septal
    • Lateral nasal (upper nasal)
    • Major alar (lower nasal)

Nasal Cavity

  • Spaces within the anterior aspect of the cranium, located directly behind the external nose
  • Left and right cavities are separated in the midline by a central nasal septum (medial wall)
  • Both chambers are bounded by a roof, floor, and lateral wall
  • Each cavity has three regions:
    • Vestibule (lined by skin, houses hair follicles)
    • Respiratory region (lined by respiratory epithelium)
    • Olfactory region (lined by olfactory epithelium, contains olfactory receptors)

Conchae

  • 3 large elevations protruding from the lateral wall of the nasal cavity
  • Conchae increase the surface area of the nasal cavity

Paranasal Sinuses

  • Functions:
    • Reducing weight of the skull
    • Air warming and filtration
    • Mucus production and storage
    • Production of Nitric Oxide
  • Structure:
    • Large cavities enclosed in skull bones
    • Covered by mucus and cilia
    • Connected to the nasal cavity through passages and apertures called ostia
  • Features:
    • Paired hollow cavities
    • Air-filled
    • Bony walls
    • Lined by respiratory epithelium (pseudostratified columnar epithelium)
  • Connections with nasal cavity:
    • Frontal and anterior ethmoidal sinus openings
    • Middle ethmoidal opening
    • Posterior ethmoidal opening
    • Sphenoopening
    • Supramaxillary sinus opening
    • Mid-inferior nasal duct opening
    • Opening to pharyngotympanic tube

Sinus Innervation

  • Ophthalmic nerve
  • Maxillary nerve
  • Frontal sinus is supplied by branches of the ophthalmic nerve
  • Ethmoidal and Sphenoidal sinuses are supplied by branches of both maxillary and ophthalmic nerves

Sinus Infections

  • Can cause toothache due to the proximity of the maxillary sinus to the upper teeth
  • The non-odontogenic referred "tooth pain" is from superior alveolar nerves passing through the maxillary sinus
  • Sinusitis: an upper respiratory tract infection can spread to the sinuses, causing inflammation, pain, and swelling of the mucosa

Test your knowledge of the nose anatomy, bones, conchae, and paranasal sinuses. Learn about their structure, function, and relationship to the nasal cavity. Identify the positions and drainage sites of the paranasal sinuses.

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