Necessary versus Sufficient Conditions in Science and Psychology

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What does internal validity refer to in an experiment?

The degree to which a causal relationship can be established

Which of the following is NOT an extraneous variable in an experiment?

The manipulated independent variable

What does validity in experiments primarily address?

Actual study of intended variables

When creating treatment conditions, why is it important for the operational definitions to be reliable?

To guarantee consistent consequences each time

What is the purpose of specifying all the operations to create treatment conditions like 'hungry' and 'not hungry'?

To achieve reliable operational definitions

If a researcher claims they manipulated anxiety in their subjects, what can be concluded about the validity of their definitions?

The definitions were internally valid

What is the main focus of a researcher when recruiting and using subjects?

Treating the subjects ethically and responsibly

In the context of establishing cause and effect relationships, what do we commonly identify?

Sufficient conditions

What is the role of an Institutional Review Board (IRB) with regard to research studies?

To evaluate proposed studies and assess risks to subjects

If a set of antecedents always leads to a particular behavior, what can be inferred about those antecedents?

They are sufficient conditions

What aspect distinguishes necessary from sufficient conditions in cause-and-effect relationships?

Necessary conditions are always present, while sufficient conditions guarantee an outcome.

What legal responsibility does a researcher have for research participants?

Liability for any harm to subjects, even if unintentional

What are the three minimum requirements that must be met in experimentation according to the text?

Manipulating the setting, observing the outcome, and measuring the outcome

What does explanation mean in a scientific context according to the text?

Identifying antecedent conditions of an event or behavior

What is the main purpose of comparing different treatment conditions in psychology experiments?

To establish cause and effect relationships

Why must we have clear procedures for manipulating settings in experimentation?

To meet one of the minimum requirements in experimentation

In a psychology experiment, what can be inferred when a cause-and-effect relationship is established?

There is a relationship between antecedent conditions and behaviors

What are antecedent conditions in scientific explanation according to the text?

The circumstances that come before the event or behavior to be explained

Explore the concept of necessary and sufficient conditions in science and psychology, focusing on cause-and-effect relationships. Learn how to differentiate between the XYZ set of antecedents that cause a particular behavior and other treatments that do not.

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