Nature and Elements of Communication

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18 Questions

What is the purpose of ethical communication?

To promote fairness and justice in communication

Which factor, when lost, can make a message susceptible to misinterpretation?

Nonverbal signals

According to the National Communication Association (NCA), what should individuals do before evaluating and responding to others' messages?

Promote communication climates of caring

What is a key principle of ethical communication regarding individual needs and characteristics?

Mutual understanding and protection of unique needs

Which scholar emphasizes committing to the courageous expression of personal convictions in communication?

Wood (2014)

Why is responsibility for communication consequences considered an ethical principle?

To ensure accountability and fairness in communication

Which element of communication involves paralanguage such as pitch, tone, and volume?


What is the term used for the process of translating a message into understandable terms by the receiver?


In communication, context refers to what aspect?

The circumstances surrounding the message

Which element of communication is responsible for the transmission of messages between the sender and receiver?


What can cause distortion or disruption of a message in communication?

Channel noise

Which element of communication is responsible for providing a response or reaction to the message received?


In which communication style are messages more indirect and implicit?

Latin American

Which type of culture relies more on nonverbal signs like facial expressions, gestures, tone of voice, and body language?


Which group emphasizes the primary role of communication as building relationships rather than exchanging information?

Saudi Arabia, China, Mexico

Which culture tends to exhibit a polychronic approach in completing activities simultaneously?


In a high-context communication culture, what is the main role of communication seen as?

Building relationships

Which group of cultures tends to rely more on verbal communication and facts/evidence to make decisions?

United Kingdom, United States, Germany, Switzerland

Study Notes

What is Communication?

  • Communication is the process of transmitting information and common understanding from one person to another
  • It involves sending, receiving, and understanding messages

Elements of Communication

  • Sender: the encoder or source of the message, with their own distinct characteristics
  • Message: ideas and feelings encoded, can be verbal (words) or nonverbal (paralanguage, body language, etc.)
  • Receiver: the decoder or recipient of the message, with their own attributes
  • Channel: the vehicle used in message conveyance, such as gestures, voice, tone, and other nonverbal signals

Ethical Communication

  • Ethics pertain to a set of principles or rules for correct conduct as to what is right or wrong
  • Basic principles of ethical communication:
    • Strive to understand and respect others' communications
    • Promote communication climates of caring and mutual understanding
    • Condemn communication that degrades individuals and humanity
    • Accept responsibility for the consequences of your own communication
    • Commit to courageous expression of personal convictions in pursuit of fairness and justice

Cultural Differences in Communication

  • Arab, African, Asian, and Latin American cultures tend to:
    • Be low context, polite, and indirect in relating to others
    • Use more nonverbal communication and rely on intuition and feelings to make decisions
    • Be collectivist and view power as a fact of life
  • Western cultures (e.g. UK, US, Germany, Switzerland) tend to:
    • Be direct and clear in their communication
    • Rely more on verbal communication and facts to make decisions
    • Be individualist and view power as something that should be used only when legitimate

Explore the concept of communication as the process of transmitting information and understanding messages between individuals. Learn about the exchange of information through verbal and nonverbal behaviors with examples from communication studies.

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