Memory Theories Quiz

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77 Questions

What are the 3 processes involved in cognitive operations related to memory?

Encoding, Storage, Retrieval

Which type of memory has a modality-specific nature and gets disrupted by new information in the same modality?

Sensory memory

What is the duration of unaided Short-Term Memory (STM) according to the text?

15 to 30 seconds

Which task involves introducing distractions immediately after a digit span test to prevent rehearsal?

Brown Paterson task

Which type of coding is primarily used by Short-Term Memory (STM) according to the text?

Acoustic coding

What is the capacity of Short-Term Memory (STM) based on Miller's theory?

7+/- 2 items

What is the process by which information is held in Short-Term Memory (STM)?

Rehearsal

Which type of memory has unlimited capacity and lasts for an indefinite duration?

Long-term memory

What kind of memory is autobiographical, self-focused, and spatio-temporal?

Episodic memory

According to Atkinson & Shiffrin, which two types of memory are regarded as structural components?

Short-Term Memory and Long-Term Memory

What is the proposed fourth component of Working Memory (WM) according to Baddley & Hitch's model?

Episodic buffer

In Working Memory, what consists of auditory rehearsal loops?

Phonological loop

What is the main difference between flashbulb memories and other types of memories?

Flashbulb memories are not affected by time as much.

What does the Memory Displacement theory suggest?

New information replaces old information due to capacity limitation.

Which theory explains forgetting due to a lack of proper cues for recall?

Retrieval failure theory

What is the primary factor that aids in recall according to the encoding specificity principle?

Presence of similar cues during encoding and retrieval

What is an example of a memory strategy to improve encoding mentioned in the text?

Using mnemonic techniques

What type of amnesia is characterized by the loss of the ability to form or retain new episodic memories after an injury?

Anterograde Amnesia

What is the primary reason behind the primacy effect in memory serial position?

Long-term memory consolidation of initial words

Which process of memory retrieval is likened to solving multiple-choice questions?

Recognition

According to Hermann Ebbinghaus' forgetting curve, when does forgetting occur most rapidly?

Over the first nine hours

What is the tip-of-the-tongue phenomenon an example of?

Blocking

What is the main factor that influences the probability of remembering items or events according to memory studies?

Retrieving the material during the test period

What distinguishes continuous motor skills from discrete motor skills in terms of forgetting?

Continuous skills do not forget at all, unlike discrete skills

What is the main difference between transient global amnesia and situation-specific amnesia?

Global amnesia is caused by a traumatic life event, while situation-specific amnesia is associated with crimes and PTSD.

What is a distinguishing feature of fugue state as a type of psychogenic global amnesia?

Retrograde memory loss

In what type of amnesic syndrome does immediate memory remain unimpaired?

Korsakoff’s syndrome

What is a characteristic feature of delirium in hospitalized older patients?

Increased risk for death

What bedside test is useful to investigate Korsakoff’s syndrome?

Three words learning task

What distinguishes memory loss following ECT from other types of amnesia described in the text?

Rapid reduction in memory loss

What is the commonest test of auditory, verbal immediate memory?

Digit span

Which test is commonly used to assess anterograde memory and learning?

Three words learning task

What is the term for the ability to more easily recall information congruent with the current mood?

Mood-state dependent retrieval

Which mechanism involves reconstructing memory at test using organized sets of facts?

Elaboration

In patients with Alzheimer’s disease, how do they typically perform in the paired associates test?

Equally poorly on both related and unrelated pairs

What is the average age of the earliest retrieved memory in infantile amnesia?

~3.5 years

Which area of the brain is primarily responsible for performances in short-term memory?

Pre-frontal lobes

What is the term that describes unconscious distortion and modification of memory based on present psychological needs?

Retrospective Falsification

Which test involves asking subjects to read a short story and recall elements after 30 minutes?

Wechsler memory tests

What phenomenon refers to retrieval of information being easier if the emotional state at encoding matches the emotional state at retrieval?

Mood-state dependent retrieval

Which process of memory involves accessing and recovering information from memory stores?

Retrieval

What is the capacity of Sensory Memory according to the text?

Unlimited

Which type of memory gets consolidated or 'moves' into short-term memory if attention is paid to it during perception?

Sensory Memory

What does Short-Term Memory (STM) primarily use for coding according to the text?

Visual Coding

What is the effect of introducing distractions immediately after a digit span test in Short-Term Memory (STM)?

Prevents rehearsal

What is the duration of Short-Term Memory (STM) if maintenance rehearsals are prevented according to the text?

~15-30 seconds

What is the primary function of elaborative encoding in the memory process?

To encode information semantically for storage in LTM

What is the main distinction between maintenance/rote rehearsal and elaborative rehearsal?

Maintenance rehearsal keeps information in Long-Term Memory (LTM), while elaborative rehearsal encodes information semantically.

Why is working memory often considered a broader concept than Short-Term Memory (STM)?

Because working memory allows cognitive processes on briefly stored data.

What does semantic processing involve in terms of encoding during rehearsal?

Making deeper encoding and meaning-related associations

What distinguishes procedural or implicit memory from other types of memory?

It is unaffected by organic amnesia of hippocampal origin.

What distinguishes fugue state from situation-specific amnesia?

Ability to recall personal identity in fugue state

How does the proposed episodic buffer in Working Memory (WM) help with memory processing?

By providing a temporary storage for integrating diverse types of information

In what percentage of homicides do offenders claim amnesia?

25%

What feature distinguishes Korsakoff's syndrome from transient global amnesia?

Procedural memory impairment

What characteristic differentiates delirium from Korsakoff's syndrome?

Immediate memory impairment in delirium

Patients with PTSD may show what memory dysfunction?

Anterograde memory dysfunction

What distinguishes Post-traumatic amnesia (PTA) from delirium?

Duration of amnesic gap

Which memory process is primarily responsible for retaining the initial words of a list in the memory according to the text?

Consolidation

What is the key difference between primacy and recency effects in memory recall?

Position of items in the list

What is the main factor contributing to better retention of last few words in a list according to the text?

Consolidation in Long-Term Memory (LTM)

What phenomenon is primarily responsible for individuals recalling many more items with cues compared to items they can actively recall without cues?

Memory recognition

What theory suggests that disuse with time causes forgetting but lacks evidence for neurological decay?

Decay theory

What best describes the 'Tip-of-the-tongue' phenomenon according to the text?

Blocking due to retrieval cues failure

What does the Memory Displacement theory propose?

New information displaces old information due to capacity limitations

In the context of memory, what is proactive interference?

Interference of new learning from older learnt material

What is the primary characteristic of Anterograde Amnesia?

Inability to learn anything new after an injury/lesion/event

According to the encoding specificity principle, what improves recall?

Having context-specific cues available during recall

What distinguishes Retrograde Amnesia from Anterograde Amnesia?

Inability to learn new information vs. loss of episodic memories stored before damage

Which type of memory remains relatively intact in cases of marked impairment in episodic memory such as Memory Amnesia?

Semantic memory

What is the term for unconscious distortion and modification of memory based on current psychological needs?

Retrospective Falsification

Which test is commonly used to assess verbal immediate memory?

Three Words Learning Task

In which syndrome does immediate memory usually remain unimpaired?

Amnesic Syndrome

Which area of the brain is mainly responsible for performances in Short-Term Memory (STM)?

Prefrontal Lobes

What type of amnesia is characterized by the loss of the ability to form or retain new episodic memories after an injury?

Anterograde Amnesia

What mechanism involves reconstructing memory at test using organized sets of facts?

Schema Processing

Which process of memory retrieval is likened to solving multiple-choice questions?

'Inference' Process

Test your knowledge on memory theories such as forgetting curve, flashbulb memories, memory displacement theory, and retrieval failure theory. Learn about how different types of memories are affected by time and information retrieval.

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