Lymphoid Organs and Circulation of Lymphocytes

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39 Questions

What is the specialized integral membrane protein complex on cell surfaces that bind antigens recognized by lymphocytes?

Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC)

Which type of protein plays a crucial role in the immune rejection of grafted tissue or organs?

MHC class I

What are the human cell counterparts of MHC class I and class II proteins often called?

Human Leukocyte Antigens (HLAs)

What do T lymphocytes recognize on MHC proteins?

Epitopes

Where are MHC molecules synthesized before they leave the cell?

Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER)

What happens if the MHCs on cells of a tissue graft are not similar to those encountered by T lymphocytes during development?

Strong immune reaction is induced

What do T lymphocytes consider unfamiliar MHC epitopes on graft cells as?

"Non-self" markers

Which organelles are involved in the production of MHC class I proteins?

Golgi Apparatus and Rough ER

What process do MHC class I proteins undergo before leaving the ER?

Sites with various proteasome-derived peptide fragments bind to MHC class I proteins.

What is the function of T lymphocytes towards cells with unfamiliar MHC epitopes on tissue grafts?

Eliminate them as potentially tumorigenic, infected, or abnormal cells.

Which cells display MHC class I molecules presenting self-antigens?

All nucleated cells

Where are MHC class II proteins synthesized and transported to the cell surface?

Mononuclear phagocyte system

What is the role of MHC class II proteins in antigen presentation?

Signal T lymphocytes against pathogenic cells

What type of rejection occurs in homografts (allografts)?

Immunological rejection

Which type of graft involves identical twins?

Isografts

Which cells are considered 'professional' antigen-presenting cells (APCs)?

Dendritic cells

What induces the transient expression of MHC class II on certain local cells during inflammation?

Interferon-γ

Where do progenitors of B lymphocytes mature and differentiate further?

Bone marrow

What is the main function of stem cells in adults for all lymphocytes?

Red bone marrow

What is the primary function of helper T cells?

Activate B cells into plasma cells

Which surface proteins are involved in activating different responses to antigens for B and T cells?

CD4 and CD8

How do cytotoxic T cells recognize antigens on foreign or virus-infected cells?

Via interaction with MHC class I molecules

What is the primary role of fibroblastic reticular cells in lymphoid tissue?

Produce reticulin fibers

Which type of lymphocytes bind antigens directly?

B cells

What is the function of cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) when activated?

Kill foreign or virus-infected cells

Which lymphocytes are characterized by the presence of CD8?

Cytotoxic T cells

What is the main function of fibrous reticulin fibers in lymphoid tissue?

Support lymphocytes

How do T lymphocytes recognize antigenic epitopes?

Via surface protein complexes T-cell receptors (TCRs)

What is the primary role of naive lymphocytes in newborn infants?

Recognize antigens

Which cells release perforins and granzymes to trigger apoptosis?

Cytotoxic T cells

What is the function of Regulatory T cells (Tregs)?

Inhibiting specific immune responses

Which type of T lymphocytes contain γ (gamma) and δ (delta) chains in their TCRs?

γδ T lymphocytes

Where do γδ T cells primarily migrate to in the body?

Epidermis and mucosal epithelia

What happens to B cells when BCRs bind an antigen?

Endocytosis of the antigen

What stimulates several cycles of cell proliferation in B lymphocytes?

Cytokines from helper T cells

What type of cells have long filamentous processes and interact with B lymphocytes in secondary lymphoid tissues?

Follicular dendritic cells (FDCs)

What characterizes secondary nodules in secondary lymphoid tissues?

Presence of large lymphoblasts in germinal center

What is the primary function of plasma cells derived from activated B cells?

Secrete antibodies that bind specific epitopes

How are memory B cells different from plasma cells?

Memory B cells are long-lived and responsible for rapid antibody production upon reinfection.

Explore the maturation and circulation of B and T cells through primary and secondary lymphoid organs. Understand how lymphocytes continuously recirculate through connective tissues, blood, and lymph. Learn about the cellular locations and microscopic details of lymphoid organs.

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