Logic in Philosophy Class 12: Understanding Reasoning and Logical Fallacies

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দৈনন্দিন জীবনে 'উপনিবেশ' এর সাথে 'উত্তর' -এর মধ্যে কি সাম্য?

লজিক কি?

'উপনিবেশ' -এর 'উত্তর' -এর 'নিজ' - 'ুরু' -র 'নির্দিষ্ট' - 'ী

'All men are mortal, Socrates is a man, therefore Socrates is mortal' - এর 'All men are mortal, Socrates is a man' - এর 'All men are mortal, Socrates is mortal' - 'All men are mortal, Socrates is a man'!

'Deductive reasoning' - 'General' - 'Specific'

'Logical reasoning' - 'Premises', 'Logical principles'

ইন্ডাক্টিভ মান্যতা কী?

যেভাবে 'Post hoc ergo propter hoc' ফলাসির কারণের ভুল উপনিবেশ হয়:

'Slippery slope' (domino effect) ফলাসির বিষয়ে কোনটি সঠিক?

'Ad hominem' (personal attack) fallacy-এর বিষয়ে, italic কোনগুলি italic  में और गलत है?

'Inductive reasoning' bold সামান্য bold italic neutral italic character(s) bold?

'Logical fallacies' italic incorrect italic statement italic?


Logic in Philosophy Class 12

As you delve deeper into the fascinating world of philosophy in Class 12, you'll often encounter the study of logic, a cornerstone of analytic thought. Logic is a discipline that examines the principles of reasoning, the analysis of arguments, and the critical evaluation of ideas. Understanding logic in the context of philosophy will aid you in developing critical thinking skills, enhancing your ability to analyze and evaluate arguments, and ultimately fortifying your overall philosophical understanding.

What is Logic?

Logic is the systematic study of the structure of arguments, their validity, and their soundness. It is not a set of rules to follow blindly but a way of thinking that helps us structure and evaluate our ideas. Logic explores the connections between premises and conclusions in an argument and seeks to determine whether the conclusion follows necessarily from the premises.

Logical Reasoning

Logical reasoning is the process of drawing conclusions from premises by using logical principles. It consists of two main types: deductive reasoning and inductive reasoning.

  • Deductive reasoning is a process that leads from the general to the specific. It aims to derive a conclusion that is logically necessary given certain premises. If the premises are true, deductive arguments must lead to true conclusions. For example, the syllogism: "All men are mortal, Socrates is a man, therefore Socrates is mortal" is a deductive argument.

  • Inductive reasoning is a process that leads from the specific to the general. It aims to derive a conclusion that is probable given certain premises. Inductive arguments are not necessarily true, but they are more likely to be true if the premises are true. For example, "All the swans I have seen are white, so it is probable that all swans are white."

Logical Fallacies

Logical fallacies are errors in reasoning that can lead to incorrect conclusions. Understanding logical fallacies is crucial to avoid them in your own arguments and to recognize them in the arguments of others. Some common logical fallacies include:

  • Post hoc ergo propter hoc (after this, therefore because of this): This fallacy occurs when we assume that because one event follows another, the first event must have caused the second. For example, "Every time the stock market goes up, the president gets re-elected, so the president must be responsible for the good economy."

  • Slippery slope (also known as the domino effect): This fallacy occurs when we assume that a single event will lead to a series of disastrous consequences. For example, "If we allow same-sex marriage, then polygamy, incest, and bestiality will follow."

  • Ad hominem (personal attack): This fallacy occurs when we attack the person presenting an argument instead of addressing the argument itself. For example, "You're an atheist, so you can't possibly know anything about religion."


Logic in philosophy class 12 is a fascinating subject that can help you develop critical thinking skills and sharpen your ability to analyze and evaluate arguments. By understanding the basics of logic and identifying common logical fallacies, you can make your arguments stronger and more persuasive. Logic is not just a set of rules to follow but a method of approaching problems and analyzing evidence in a systematic and rigorous manner. You'll find that understanding logic will help you in many areas of life, not just philosophy.


Enhance your critical thinking skills by exploring the study of logic in Class 12 philosophy. Learn about deductive and inductive reasoning, logical fallacies, and the systematic evaluation of arguments. Acquire a deeper understanding of how to structure and analyze ideas in a philosophical context.

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