Leishmaniasis Diagnosis and Treatment

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36 Questions

What is the main focus of the 'Roll Back Malaria' program?

Eliminating malaria and controlling the mosquito population

What is a common misconception about Babesiosis according to the text?

It is easily distinguishable from malaria based on clinical symptoms

What is the typical symptom of Babesiosis?

Shaking chills

How is infection with Babesiosis usually transmitted to humans?

By several species of ticks through sexual replication

What is primaquine active against?

Hypnozoites of P.vivax and P.ovale

What does the acronym 'RTS' stand for in the malaria vaccine name?

Repeat T epitopes

Which condition should the use of primaquine be avoided in?

G6PD deficiency

What is the primary function of the World Health Organization in the global effort to eradicate malaria?

Active involvement in control programs

What is the Montenegro test used for?

Diagnosing Leishmaniasis infection

Why are blood smears not useful for diagnosing Leishmaniasis?

The parasites are not present in the blood

What is the main cause of death from malaria?

Infection with the Plasmodium parasite

Why is malaria referred to as 'mal air'?

In reference to the breeding ground for the disease vector

Which of the following adverse effects is commonly associated with treatments involving quinine and quinidine?

Tinnitus and dysphoria

Which anti-malarial agent is believed to inhibit mitochondrial electron transport in Plasmodium species?

Atovaquone

What is a reported side effect of Atovaquone-Proguanil therapy?

Nausea and headache

What is the primary reason for the common resistance to Folate Inhibition therapy in many areas?

Slow action against merozoites

What is the recommended antibiotic treatment for most patients with symptomatic Babesiosis?

Atovaquone and azithromycin

Which nematode is responsible for elephantiasis in humans?

Wuchereria bancrofti

What may result from chronic filarial-induced eosinophilia?

Endomyocardial fibrosis

How is lymphatic filariasis transmitted to humans?

Via mosquito bite

What is the mechanism of action of Artemisinins in treating malaria?

Producing free radicals that damage parasite proteins

Which treatment is highly effective against blood schizonts and gametocytes of all malarial species but has no effect on hepatic stages?

Artesunate

What are the rare serious adverse reactions associated with Chloroquine treatment?

Impaired hearing, confusion, visual changes

What is a caution associated with the use of Artemisinins in pregnancy?

Use during the first trimester of pregnancy

What are the adverse effects commonly associated with treatments involving quinine and quinidine?

Tinnitus, headache, and visual disturbances

Which anti-malarial agent is believed to inhibit mitochondrial electron transport in Plasmodium species?

Atovaquone-Proguanil

What is the most commonly seen complication of malaria with treatments involving quinine and quinidine?

Blackwater fever

What is the primary reason for the common resistance to Folate Inhibition therapy in many areas?

Resistance is common in many areas, particularly to P.falciparum

What is the general geographical distribution of the parasite that causes Chagas disease?

Central and South America

What is the infective form of the parasite responsible for causing schistosomiasis in humans?

Miracidium

Which laboratory test may be of value for diagnosing malaria?

Blood smear microscopy

What is the most common symptom of the disease caused by the parasite responsible for African sleeping sickness?

Severe headache

What is the primary function of the Malaria RTS,S/AS01 Vaccine?

Providing immunity against P.falciparum sporozoites

What is the main reason for avoiding the use of primaquine?

Increased risk of G6PD deficiency

What is the mechanism of action of primaquine in treating malaria?

Targeting hypnozoites of P.vivax and P.ovale

What is the World Health Organization's role in the global effort to eradicate malaria?

Actively participating in control programs for malaria eradication

Test your knowledge about the diagnosis and treatment of Leishmaniasis, including the Montenegro test, hypersensitivity reactions, and choice of medications based on Leishmania species and host factors.

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