Introduction to Immunology: The Immune System

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What is the function of the immune system?

To recognize and destroy foreign materials

Which of the following is NOT part of the immune system?

Brain

What are leukocytes?

White blood cells

What is the coordinated reaction of the immune system against infections known as?

Immune response

Which organs can be categorized as Secondary Lymphoid Organs?

Spleen and tonsils

What do phagocytes do in the immune system?

Destroy foreign materials

What are the primary lymphoid organs in the human body?

Thymus and Bone marrow

Which of the following is an example of the body's first line of defense against pathogens?

Skin acting as a physical barrier

What is the function of tears in the body's defense system?

To destroy pathogens with lysozyme

What causes swelling in the inflammatory response?

Passage of plasma from the blood stream into damaged tissue

Which type of immunity refers to antigen-specific immune response?

Acquired immunity

What substance is referred to as an 'antigen'?

Any substance that binds specifically to an antibody or a T cell receptor

Which macromolecules can act as antigens when introduced into the body?

Proteins and polysaccharides

What is the main function of the immune system's third-line defenses?

To recognize, attack, destroy, and remember each pathogen that enters the body

What is the name given to substances capable of inducing a specific immune response?

Antigens

Match the following immune system components with their functions:

White blood cells (WBCs) = Central to all immune responses Macrophages = Contribute to the immune response by engulfing and digesting pathogens Lymphocytes = Mediate immune responses and liberate cytokines Phagocytes = A type of white blood cell that engulfs and digests pathogens

Match the following immune system organs with their functions:

Bone marrow = Site for the development of blood cells, including immune cells Thymus = Site for T cell maturation and differentiation Spleen = Filters blood, removes old or damaged red blood cells, and activates immune responses Lymph nodes = Filter lymph, trap pathogens, and facilitate activation of immune responses

Match the following terms related to immunity with their definitions:

Immunity = Protection against infection or disease Immune response = Coordinated reaction of the immune system against infections and foreign substances Antigen = Substance capable of inducing a specific immune response Cytokines = Soluble molecules secreted by cells to regulate immune responses

Match the following types of lymphoid organs with their functions:

Primary Lymphoid Organs = Sites for the production and maturation of lymphocytes, including bone marrow and thymus Secondary Lymphoid Organs = Sites where lymphocytes encounter antigens, such as lymph nodes and spleen Tonsils = Contain lymphoid tissue that traps pathogens entering through the mouth and nose Lymphatic vessels = Transport lymph containing antigens to secondary lymphoid organs for immune response activation

Match the following terms related to cells and molecules in the immune system with their functions:

Leukocytes (WBCs) = Central to all immune responses as they combat infections Cytokines = Regulate the intensity and duration of immune responses by acting as signaling molecules Phagocytosis = Process by which phagocytes engulf and digest pathogens in the body Lymphocytes = Mediate specific immune responses by recognizing antigens and producing antibodies

Match the following descriptions of immune system components with their corresponding terms:

Cells that engulf and digest pathogens in the body = Phagocytes Sites where lymphocytes encounter antigens for immune response activation = Secondary Lymphoid Organs Substances capable of inducing a specific immune response = Antigens Sites for T cell maturation and differentiation = Thymus

Match the following organs with their categorization as Primary or Secondary Lymphoid Organs:

Thymus = Primary Lymphoid Organ Bone marrow = Primary Lymphoid Organ Tonsil = Secondary Lymphoid Organ Spleen = Secondary Lymphoid Organ

Match the following types of immunity with their respective descriptions:

Innate immunity = Non-specific immunity Adaptive immunity = Specific mechanisms of defense Third-Line Defenses = Immune response that recognizes, attacks, destroys, and remembers each pathogen First-Line of Defenses = Body's initial barrier against pathogens such as physical and chemical barriers

Match the following components with their roles in the immune system:

Skin = Acts as a barrier to invasion Sweat = Contains chemicals which can kill different pathogens Tears = Have lysozyme with powerful digestive abilities that render antigens harmless Mucus = Can trap pathogens, which are then sneezed, coughed, washed away, or destroyed by chemicals

Match the following symptoms of the Inflammatory response with their causes:

Redness = Capillary dilation resulting in increased blood flow Heat = Capillary dilation resulting in increased blood flow Swelling = Passage of plasma from the blood stream into damaged tissue Pain = Mainly due to tissue destruction and, to a lesser extent, swelling

Match the following substances with their description as antigens:

Proteins and polysaccharides = Macromolecules that elicit an immune response in the body Inhaled macromolecules (e.g., proteins on cat hairs) = Capable of inducing a specific immune response Ingested macromolecules (e.g., shellfish proteins) = Trigger an allergic response in susceptible people Molecules introduced beneath the skin (e.g., on a splinter) = Enter the body from the environment and can trigger an immune response

Match the following types of defense with their characteristics:

First-Line of Defenses = Body's initial barrier against pathogens such as physical and chemical barriers Second-Line Defenses = Activated if a pathogen gets past the first line of defense and causes an infection Third-Line Defenses = Immune response that recognizes, attacks, destroys, and remembers each pathogen Innate immunity = Non-specific immunity

Match the following substances with their roles in the body's defense system:

Saliva = Contains lysozyme which has powerful digestive abilities that render antigens harmless Stomach Acid = Destroys pathogens Antigen = 'Any substance (usually foreign) that binds specifically to an antibody' Antibodies and specialized cells = 'Render pathogens harmless by attacking and destroying them'

Match the following actions with their roles in the immune system:

Recognition, attack, destruction, and memory of each pathogen = 'Third-Line Defenses' of the immune system Differentiation among pathogens and production of specific cells for each type of pathogen = 'Third-Line Defenses' of the immune system Making specialized cells and antibodies to render pathogens harmless = 'Third-Line Defenses' of the immune system Production of cells specific for particular pathogens = 'Third-Line Defenses' of the immune system

Match the following descriptions with their corresponding terms:

Foreign substance that binds specifically to an antibody or T cell receptor = 'Antigen' Substance capable of inducing a specific immune response = 'Antigen' Macromolecules that elicit an immune response in the body = 'Antigens - Proteins and polysaccharides' Example: shellfish proteins triggering an allergic response in susceptible people = 'Ingested macromolecules'

Match the following functions with their corresponding components in the body's defense system:

Trapping pathogens and facilitating their removal or destruction = 'Mucus' Acts as a barrier to invasion by pathogens = 'Skin' Contains chemicals which can kill different pathogens = 'Sweat' Has powerful digestive abilities that render antigens harmless = 'Tears'

Explore the fundamental concepts of the immune system, including its various components such as white blood cells, phagocytes, lymphocytes, and organs like the bone marrow, lymph nodes, tonsils, thymus, and spleen. Learn about immunity and how the immune system safeguards the body against infections.

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